Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 100 m (Ref. 5217), usually 40 - 70 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical; 37°N - 33°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and Puerto Rico to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Absent in the Bahamas, Bermuda, and the western Caribbean (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3792); max. published weight: 75.50 g (Ref. 118626)
Found over mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 3792). Juveniles up to 8 cm are pelagic (Ref. 9626). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3792). Flesh considered good quality; marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 3792). In southwestern Brazil found in 112 m depth (Ref. 47377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.5 - 27.3, mean 24.5 (based on 127 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00582 - 0.01430), b=3.12 (2.99 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .