Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 20°C - 31°C (Ref. 36880); 37°N - , 113°W - 59°W (Ref. 86798)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Texas in the USA south to Venezuela, including the West Indies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.6, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321)
Inhabits pools and runs of small to medium rivers (Ref. 86798). Adults live in freshwater rivers and streams. Young are encountered occasionally in brackish waters. This is the only mullet that ascends far inland and spends all its adult life in freshwater (Ref. 11225). Tend to be few and solitary in upper streams, but form uneven schools in larger streams at lower elevations (Ref. 11225). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Usually spawn during the rainy season (Ref. 42119). Caught and consumed by local populations in some parts of central America.
Spawning period coincides with the rainy season in some areas where it occurs (Ref. 42119).
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 28, mean 26.8 °C (based on 208 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00750 - 0.01842), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 128,827).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 135 [56, 317] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.52 [1.35, 4.67] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.7, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.13 [0.48, 2.66] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.8 [9.0, 49.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.9 [3.7, 65.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.49 [0.95, 2.54] mg/100g (wet weight);