Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 40 - 700 m (Ref. 5217), usually 40 - 179 m (Ref. 47377). Deep-water; 36°N - 45°S, 97°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3787)
Inhabits soft bottoms (Ref. 5217). Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 3787). Considered a good food fish; marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 3787).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.3 - 27, mean 22.6 (based on 285 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00671 - 0.01877), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.78, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .