Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Trisopterus: Greek, tris = thrice + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - 300 m (Ref. 54932), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54932). Temperate; 79°N - 48°N, 27°W - 30°E (Ref. 54932)
Northeast Atlantic: southwest Barents Sea, sometimes at Bear Island, south to the English Channel, - and the Bay of Biscaye (Ref. 90172)-, around Iceland and Faeroe Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - 15 cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 273)
spines: 0. Gray-brown dorsally, silvery on sides, white on belly. A dark blotch is at the upper edge of the pectoral-fin base.
Benthopelagic to pelagic over muddy bottoms. Mostly found between 100 and 200 m. Feeds mostly on planktonic crustaceans (copepods, euphausiids, shrimps, amphipods) but also on small fish and various eggs and larvae (Ref. 1371). Caught mainly for reduction to fishmeal (Ref. 3383), trout pellets, fodder (Ref. 35388).
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205). Migrates for spawning between the Shetland Islands and Norway and out of the Skagerrak. Major spawning grounds are Northwestern Scotland, Norway, Faeroe Islands and Iceland.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.9 - 10.1, mean 7.8 (based on 185 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00522 - 0.00695), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.36; tm=2.3; tmax=5; Fec=27,000).
Prior r = 0.88, 2 SD range = 0.48 - 1.60, log(r) = -0.13, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 2 M, 6 K, 7 tgen, 1 tmax, 3 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .