Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sand steenbras
Lithognathus mormyrus
photo by Patzner, R.

Family:  Sparidae (Porgies)
Max. size:  55 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 12 years
Environment:  demersal; depth range 0 - 150 m
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay, Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean; southward to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa; around the Canary and Cape Verde Islands (Ref. 3688); and Madeira Is (Ref. 74541). Western Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique (Ref. 3688). Not found in tropical east Africa (Ref. 3198), Red Sea (Ref. 84159) and Black Sea (Ref. 4781, 112870).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-13; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 10-11
Biology:  Found on the shelf, over sandy and muddy bottoms as well as seagrass-beds and estuaries. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Feeds on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans. Protandric hermaphrodite (Ref. 3688). Flesh excellent (Ref. 3198); sold fresh and dried.
IUCN Red List Status: (Ref. 115185)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  This is the only species of genus Lithognathus that is recognized in this country (Ref. 45522). Mainly caught with traps throughout the year at depths ranging between 10 and 100 m (Ref. 45522).

Entered by: Papasissi, Christine - 17.10.90
Modified by: Sampang-Reyes, Arlene G. - 05.04.10
Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 28.01.97

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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