Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 21°C - 28°C (Ref. 4858); 37°N - 8°N, 100°W - 58°W (Ref. 55198)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to West Indies and northern South America. Also Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47838)
soft rays: 16 - 17. Large black spot surrounded by a white ring on body below rear of dorsal fin. Narrow, dark, diagonal lines that meet at mid-side, forming series of forward-pointing chevrons (Ref. 26938). Upper profile of head steep and slightly concave due to protruding snout; light gray, shading to pale yellowish on sides; a black bar on head; pelvic fins yellow (Ref. 13442).
Inhabit shallow reefs and generally occurs singly or in pairs. Feed mainly on zoantharians, polychaete worms, gorgonians and tunicates. Easily approached (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as obligate, genetic and social (Ref. 52884).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 558 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02512 (0.01646 - 0.03832), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 73.2 [37.9, 148.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.24 [0.66, 2.28] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [18.6, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.221 [0.120, 0.406] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.6 [6.2, 30.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.3 [7.9, 131.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.65, 1.79] mg/100g (wet weight);