(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335); acerina: acerina is a noun..
More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; Água doce demersal. Temperate; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468); 53°N - 44°N, 25°E - 27°E
Europe: basins of northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov in Dniester, South Bug, Dniepr, Don rivers and Kuban drainages; in Dniepr up to Belarus. Rare in most of its range.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 14.0, range 12 - 16 cm
Max length : 21.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 59043)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Espinhos dorsais (total): 17 - 19. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by having roundish dark spots on body, mostly in 3 rows, first below dorsal base, and 50-55 + 4-5 scales along lateral line. Can be further separated from other species of the genus by having 17-19 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043).
Found in flowing waters and lakes with clear water. Also inhabits rapids during summer. Occurs over sand and gravel bottom but prefers hard compact sand. Usually crepuscular but feeds also during daytime. Preys predominantly on benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, insect larvae, molluscs), rarely on fish. Forms small schools. In September, starts forming large schools and moves to deeper places and remains inactive until ice melts. Does not undertake long distance migrations. Spawns in small schools river stretches with heavy current and sand or gravel bottom (Ref.59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
"Female lays slightly sticky eggs in several portions: first at 6-8°C, second at 12-14°C. Eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 14-16°C. Newly hatched larvae first lie on bottom; at 9 days (when pectorals are developed), they actively move to middle water layers and drift downstream. At 12 days (6.5mm) they start active feeding on small invertebrates in shallow shoreline habitats" (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 125652)
Ameaça para o homem
Idade/TamanhoCrescimentoComprimento-pesoComprimento-comprimentoFrequência de comprimentoMorfometriaMorfologiaLarvasDinâmica larvarRecrutamentoAbundânciaBRUVS
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoNutrientsMass conversion
ColaboradoresFotografiasStamps, Coins Misc.SonsCiguateraVelocidadeTipo de nataçãoÁrea branquialOutras referênciasCérebrosVisão
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00491 - 0.02448), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).