(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335); acerina: acerina is a noun..
More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; air tawar dasar (demersal). Temperate; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468); 53°N - 44°N, 25°E - 27°E
Europe: basins of northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov in Dniester, South Bug, Dniepr, Don rivers and Kuban drainages; in Dniepr up to Belarus. Rare in most of its range.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 14.0, range 12 - 16 cm
Max length : 21.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 59043)
Morfologi | Morfometrik
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 17 - 19. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by having roundish dark spots on body, mostly in 3 rows, first below dorsal base, and 50-55 + 4-5 scales along lateral line. Can be further separated from other species of the genus by having 17-19 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043).
Found in flowing waters and lakes with clear water. Also inhabits rapids during summer. Occurs over sand and gravel bottom but prefers hard compact sand. Usually crepuscular but feeds also during daytime. Preys predominantly on benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, insect larvae, molluscs), rarely on fish. Forms small schools. In September, starts forming large schools and moves to deeper places and remains inactive until ice melts. Does not undertake long distance migrations. Spawns in small schools river stretches with heavy current and sand or gravel bottom (Ref.59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva
"Female lays slightly sticky eggs in several portions: first at 6-8°C, second at 12-14°C. Eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 14-16°C. Newly hatched larvae first lie on bottom; at 9 days (when pectorals are developed), they actively move to middle water layers and drift downstream. At 12 days (6.5mm) they start active feeding on small invertebrates in shallow shoreline habitats" (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 125652)
ancaman kepada manusia
Umur / SaizPertumbuhanpanjang-beratpanjang-panjangukuran frekuensiMorfometrikMorfologiLarvaDinamika larvapemulihanKelimpahanBRUVS
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanNutrientsMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00484 - 0.02482), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .