Carcharhinus leucas, Bull shark : fisheries, gamefish

Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839)

Bull shark
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Carcharhinus leucas   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Carcharhinus leucas
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Müller & Henle.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; Água doce; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; anfídromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 1 - 152 m (Ref. 30573), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 55183).   Subtropical; 42°N - 39°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55182)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical waters (Ref. 81283): widespread in warm oceans, rivers and lakes (Ref. 4716). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 58839); eastern Atlantic: Morocco, Senegal to Angola (Ref. 81283, 81623); Indo-Pacific: Kenya and South Africa to India, then, Viet Nam to Australia; southern Baja California, Mexico to Ecuador and possibly occurring in Peru. Africa: in freshwater found in rivers of West Africa from Gambia River to Ogowe River (Ref. 81283) and in the Cuanza in Angola (Ref. 120641). Sympatric with Carcharhinus amboinensis, Glyphis gangeticus.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 193.0, range 180 - 230 cm
Max length : 360 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 85726); 400.0 cm TL (female); common length : 260 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 9253); peso máx. publicado: 316.5 kg (Ref. 40637); idade máx. registrada: 32 anos (Ref. 42004)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 0. Diagnosis: Carcharhinus leucas is a massive shark with a short, broad and blunt snout, small eyes and triangular saw-edged upper teeth, and lack of interdorsal ridge, characters which are sufficient to distinguish this species (Ref. 26938).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

A coastal and freshwater shark inhabiting shallow waters especially in bays, estuaries, rivers, and lakes (Ref. 244). It readily penetrates far up rivers and hypersaline bays and littoral lagoons (Ref. 9997, 44894, 81283). Capable of covering great distances (up to 180 kilometers in 24 hours), moving between fresh and brackish water at random (Ref. 44894). Adults often found near estuaries and freshwater inflows to the sea; young enter rivers and may be found hundreds of km from the sea (Ref. 4967, 44894, 58304). Feeds on bony fishes, other sharks, rays, mantis shrimps, crabs, squid, sea snails, sea urchins, mammalian carrion, sea turtles, and occasionally garbage (Ref. 244, 5578, 44894). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Gives birth to litters of up to 13 young (Ref. 26938, 44894). Size at birth is 56-81 cm TL (Ref. 81623). Sexual maturity is attained after 10-15 years (at a length between 160-200 centimeters) (Ref. 44894). Though not commercially important, this species is a good food fish (Ref. 12484). Utilized fresh, fresh-frozen or smoked for human consumption, fins for soup, hide for leather, liver for oil, and carcass for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Very hardy and lives well in captivity (Ref. 244). This large shark is potentially dangerous to man (Ref. 81283), probably the most dangerous species of tropical shark (Ref. 244), and it is repeatedly implicated in attacks on humans (Ref. 4967, 44894); attacks in fresh water are rare (Ref. 44894).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Viviparpous, with a yolk-sac placenta, 1-13 young in a litter. Size at birth about 60 cm TL (Ref. 9997). In the western North Atlantic off Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, and off South Africa, young are born in late spring or early summer. Off Nicaragua, females may have young throughout the year, with a peak in spring and early summer. Estimated gestation period is 10 to 11 months (Ref. 244). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Females often have courtship scars, but males are rarely seen with fighting scars (Ref. 244).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Colaboradores

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Quase ameaçada (NT) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
FAO(pescarias: produção; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.2 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 2930 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00339 - 0.00537), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Muito baixo(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população maior que 14 anos (K=0.04-0.15; tm=6-21; tmax=32; Fec=1-13).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Medium.