Hucho taimen (Pallas, 1773)

Taimen
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Hucho taimen
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
  More on author: Pallas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 593).   溫帶

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: some upper tributaries of Pechora and Kama (with tributaries Vyatka, Belaya, Vishera, Chusovaya) in Volga drainage; Siberia from Ob' to Yana drainages; Amur and some adjacent drainages. Prior to the impoundment of Kama, used to enter Volga and to reach downriver to Samara.
前蘇聯與亞洲: 裡海與北極圈流域到阿穆爾河。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大体重: 105.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年龄: 55 年 (Ref. 56502)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Small cross-shaped dark spots on head and sides of body; maxilla reaching backward behind rear edge of eyes; scales oval, minute without radial grooves and rings extremely clear; adipose fin well-developed; pyloric caecum 205-219 (Ref. 45563). Distinguished from other species of Salmonidae in central and eastern Europe by the combination of the following characters: teeth on vomer and palatine in a continuous, horse-shoe-shaped band; 173-288 scales in midlateral row (107-164 pored scales); small round dark spots on head and dark x-shaped or/and half-moon-shaped spots on body; head long (22-25% SL) and dorsally flattened; very long jaws, maxilla length 42-50% HL; in adults, maxilla reaching posterior margin of eye; shallow cylindrical body; caudal deeply emarginate, reddish in adults; large size in undisturbed areas; and 9-18 gill rakers, usually 11-13 (Ref. 59043).
在头部与身体侧边上的小的十字形深色的斑点; 颚骨达到向后的在后眼睛后缘; 鳞片椭圆形, 细小的没有放射状的凹槽与环非常清澈; 脂鳍发展良好的; 幽门的盲肠 205-219.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit piedmont and montane cold rivers with high oxygen concentrations. They prefer to live in deeper holes with slow current for periods of reduced activity (day time, winter), but also lower reaches, estuaries, cold lakes and reservoirs. Both juveniles and adults are territorial. Adults frequently occur within their own restricted territory (deep holes below rapids and waterfalls, confluence of small tributaries, below bridge pillar or large rocks, bank excavations), which they abandon only foraging and spawning. Young individuals do not maintain permanent territory. Juveniles occur in fast-flowing waters, prey on drifting invertebrates and shift to fish diet after 1-3 years. Adults feed on fishes and terrestrial vertebrates. They breed in shallow places with fast current on pebble bottom, immediately downstream of large deep pools, often in small river tributaries. Usually undertake upriver migration for spawning in the upper reaches of tributaries. Can overcome quite high obstacles while migrating to spawning sites. Eggs, 5-6 mm in diameter, hatch after 28-38 days. Alevins stay in gravel until yolk sac is absorbed after 10-15 days while young first remain near spawning site, then move downstream. Larger immature individuals of 2-4 years of age live in same sites as adults but separately below groups of adults or in smaller holes. Life span reaches up to about 20 years (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat loss, pollution and over harvesting (Ref. 58490), including angling tourism (Ref. 59043).

栖息于河川与湖泊。 偏爱快速流动的河的一个专门河川的种是; 从不下降到海洋。 在春天,它溯河而且进入水浅的小溪。 五月时产卵。 (参考文献 593) 报告达到 180 公分TL 与 100 公斤根据 Fabrizio Oliva(pers. comm.); 150-160 与 50-60 公斤 (安德里亚 Mangold , pers. comm.)。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Females dig a redd about 1.0-1.5 m in diameter. Eggs, 5-6 mm in diameter, hatch after 28-38 days. Alevins stay in gravel until yolk sac is absorbed after 10-15 days while young first remain near spawning site, then move downstream (Ref. 59043).前蘇聯與亞洲: 裡海與北極圈流域到阿穆爾河。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 23 June 2012

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 实验的; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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生态毒物学
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孕卵数

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00778 - 0.01119), b=3.03 (2.98 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (tm=5; tmax=55; Fec=44,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.