Rutilus frisii, Kutum : fisheries, aquaculture

Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840)

Kutum
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Rutilus frisii
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Rutilus: Latin, rutilus = reddish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 深度上下限 50 - ? m.   溫帶; 56°N - 36°N, 22°E - 54°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Black and Azov Sea basins, absent from Danube and Kuban drainages; landloacked populations in Don, resulting from dam construction; Caspian basin from Terek to Atrek drainages, very rarely in northern Caspian basin (Volga [earlier up to Perm], Ural); Lake Iznik in Sea of Marmara basin in Anatolia.
歐亞大陸: 在黑海北海岸上的河川與里海盆地。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).(參考文獻 6111) Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii,1901 辨識特徵為 , 一些在裡海作為一個亞種.(參考文獻 26334,39702)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 43 - 50 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 6111); 最大體重: 8.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 12 年 (Ref. 6111)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背的軟條 (總數): 11-12; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 14. Can be diagnosed from its congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins by having the following characters: body almost cylindrical, depth 19-26% SL; 53-64 + 3 scales on lateral line; abdomen posterior to pelvic rounded; snout rounded, stout; mouth subterminal; dorsal fin with 9-10½ branched rays; iris and fins grey or slightly yellowish; breeding males with large, scattered tubercles on top and side of head (Ref. 59043).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A semi-anadromous species which occurs in large brackish estuaries and their large, freshened plume waters, coastal lakes connected to rivers and lowland stretches of large rivers. Can tolerate salinities up to 7-12 ppt. Landlocked populations live in lakes or reservoirs. Larvae and early juveniles take zooplankton, algae and insect larvae as food while adults feed on molluscs, Rhithropanopeus crabs and other benthic invertebrates. Feeding ceases while migrating, spawning and overwintering. Breeds in small rivers or streams with heavy current on gravel bottom. Begins migration to rivers in second half of October (Black Sea, rarely in Caspian Sea). When rivers are covered with ice, spawning migration stops and continues when ice breaks up or even under ice in February-April. Spawns in April-May. Adults migrate back to estuaries to forage immediately after spawning. Juveniles move to estuaries during first summer in August. Landlocked populations undertake migration in springs from lakes or reservoirs or middle stretches of rivers to tributaries or upper reaches (Ref. 59043).

在深水中生活在小群魚群, 但是在支流的淺水區中產卵在湖中覓食四月到五月時。 卵在雜草之中生產與在礫石之上, 而且在大約 10 天中孵化。 在 3-5 年中性成熟。 黑海的半淡鹹水族群是溯河洄游產卵的。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Lays eggs which adhere to rocks and gravel, rarely on submerged plants. Eggs hatch in 10-16 days at 12-19°C (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 在黑海北海岸上的河川與里海盆地。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).(參考文獻 6111) Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii,1901 辨識特徵為 , 一些在裡海作為一個亞種.(參考文獻 26334,39702)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

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年龄/大小
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長度-重量
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形態測量圖
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仔魚
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入添量
豐度
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00537 - 0.01412), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tmax=12; tm=3-5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.