Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; acqua dolce; salmastro associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 5 - 20 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 18°S, 31°E - 165°E (Ref. 55)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Solomon and Mariana islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.1, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 55); common length : 20.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 55)
Spine dorsali (totale): 10; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 13-14; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 7 - 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep; greatest depth 2.5-3.0 in SL; preopercular notch and knob poorly developed; vomerine tooth patch triangular, with a medial posterior extension; gill rakers of first gill arch 6-7 + 10-14 - 16-21; caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate; scale rows on back parallel to lateral line. Colour of back and upper sides dark brown, lower sides and belly whitish with a silver sheen; usually a series of 4-5 narrow yellow stripes on the sides below the lateral line; a distinct round, black spot on the back below the posterior part of the spinous portion of the dorsal fin (Ref. 9821, 90102).
Adults inhabit very shallow coastal habitats, often in large schools near freshwater run-offs (Ref. 48635). Juveniles often intertidal (Ref. 48635); over sand, silt, or coral rubble bottoms, occasionally in mangrove-lined streams and estuaries (Ref. 9821) They may enter freshwater to feed (Ref. 245); on small fish and invertebrates (Ref. 5213). This is a small species commonly utilized in subsistence fisheries and also seen in markets. Caught mainly with handlines, traps, and gill nets and are marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 9821).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2891 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.01036 - 0.02426), b=2.95 (2.83 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .