Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Scomberesocidae
Etymology: Scomberesox: Latin, scomber = mackerel + Esox, the old name for "pike" (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Hubbs & Wisner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical
Southwest Atlantic, and Northeast Atlantic to eastern Indian Ocean: confined to warm-temperate or tropical waters, yet apparently antitropical. Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, the Azores and Madeira to Sierra Leone and westwards to 50°W, and from Angola to South Africa. Western Atlantic: Brazil to Uruguay. Often confused as the juvenile form of Scomberesox saurus scombroides (Ref. 27121).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5288); common length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6531)
spines: 0. Dorsal soft rays + finlets = 14-16; Anal soft rays + finlets = 17-20.
Quite common, essentially oceanic, surface-schooling, and gregarious species. Feeds on small planktonic forms (Ref. 27121). Occasionally found in the stomachs of tunas. Too small in size to be of commercial interest (Ref. 6617).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Wisner, R.L., 1990. Scomberesocidae. p. 598-603. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6531)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.7 - 28.8, mean 25.2 (based on 27326 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6562 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .