Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Gonostomatidae
Etymology: Sigmops: Taken from the name of the letter "S, sigma" (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas batipelágico; intervalo de profundidade 25 - 4740 m (Ref. 58018), usually 100 - 1500 m. Deep-water; 65°N -
Worldwide. Mediterranean (Ref. 85016). Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from Iceland (Ref. 4769) south to Cape Verde and Gulf of Guinea; also between 30°S-35°S. Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 27768). North Atlantic: 65°-30°N. Indo-Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters. Eastern Pacific: found in California and Baja California (Ref. 35800), and Chile (Ref. 9068). Indian Ocean, tropical and subtropical waters (Ref. 47377). South China Sea and East China Sea (Ref.74511).
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4463)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 11-15; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 27 - 32; Vértebras: 39 - 41. Black in color, slightly silvery laterally; fins dusky and with small black spots; distal portion of pectorals and pelvic fins colorless (Ref. 3991). Dorsal adipose fin present. Branchiostegal rays: 12-13 (Ref. 35800).
Meso- to bathypelagic (Ref. 58302). Occur between 100-200 m and 500-800 m at night and 25-600 m and 1,250-1,500 m during the day (Ref. 4463). Feed on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 4769). Photophores develop in fishes over 6-22 mm SL (Ref. 4769). Protandric hermaphrodite, oviparous with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35800). Minimum depth from Ref. 4463.
Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz, 1990. Gonostomatidae. p. 283-292. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4463)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: sem interesse
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.9 - 19.2, mean 6.9 (based on 5921 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00142 - 0.00928), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .