Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen, 1987

Frostback rockcod
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Epinephelus bilobatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus bilobatus (Frostback rockcod)
Epinephelus bilobatus
Picture by Allen, G.R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Randall & Allen.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 4 - 50 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 16°S - 22°S, 116°E - 124°E (Ref. 5222)

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Eastern Indian Ocean: known only from Western Australia. Was illustrated in color as Epinephelus maculatus by Allen (1985, Ref. 1677) and Sainsbury et al. (1985, Ref. 3131). This species have been much confused with other 'reticulated groupers' in literature, and many museum specimens have been misidentified.
東印度洋: 已知只來自西澳大利亞了。 被艾倫 (1985, 參考文獻 1677) 與塞恩斯伯里等人舉例顏色如 花點石斑魚〔Epinephelus maculatus〕 。 (1985, 參考文獻 3131). 這種在文獻中多曾經另外地互相混淆 '網狀的鱸科魚類' ,而且許多博物館標本曾經辨認錯。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5222)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 17-18; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Characterized by: greyish-brown color overall with hexagonal brown spots; white strip at back; dorsal fin base with 2-3 dark bilobed spots; body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales anterodorsally on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); preopercle subangular, with serrae at the angle slightly enlarged; opercular spines inconspicuous; straight or slightly concave upper edge of operculum; nostrils subequal in small fish, but posterior nostril diameter about twice of that of anterior nostril in a fish of 27 cm SL; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 2 rows of small teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

No fishery information is available. Found on coral reefs or rocky bottom (Ref. 089707). No published information on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).

没有渔场信息是有用的。 栖息于珊瑚礁或岩石的底部了。 没有被出版的信息在它的生物学特性。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

東印度洋: 已知只來自西澳大利亞了。 被艾倫 (1985, 參考文獻 1677) 與塞恩斯伯里等人舉例顏色如 花點石斑魚〔Epinephelus maculatus〕 。 (1985, 參考文獻 3131). 這種在文獻中多曾經另外地互相混淆 '網狀的鱸科魚類' ,而且許多博物館標本曾經辨認錯。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 28, mean 26.8 (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .