Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker, 1855)

Snubnose grouper
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Epinephelus macrospilos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Epinephelus macrospilos
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 3 - 44 m (Ref. 90102).   熱帶; 30°N - 33°S, 30°E - 137°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Kenya south to Natal, South Africa and east to the central Pacific. Unknown from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Hawaii. Recorded from Europa Island (MNHN 1992-0498, Ref. 33390). Often confused with Epinephelus quoyanus, Epinephelus faveatus, Epinephelus corallicola, and Epinephelus howlandi.
印度-太平洋: 肯亞南至南非的納塔爾而且東至中太平洋。 未知的從紅海,波斯灣與夏威夷。 記錄自歐羅巴島了。 (MNHN 1992-0498, 參考文獻 33390) 時常與 玳瑁石斑魚〔Epinephelus quoyanus〕 巢斑石斑魚〔Epinephelus faveatus〕 黑駁石斑魚〔Epinephelus corallicola〕 荷氏石斑魚〔Epinephelus howlandi〕 互相混淆。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4787); 最大体重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Head profile angular; body less compressed and spots more closely spaced than E. corallicola and E. howlandi (Ref. 37816). Body and median fins with large dark blotches, largest towards the tail (Ref. 48635); further characterized by pale greyish color; head, body and fins with well-spaced dark brown to orange brown spots of unequal size; soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins with narrow white to yellow margin; lower part of head and breast with white blotches; 3-4 black blotches along back; body scales cycloid except ctenoid on lower region below pectoral fins; body with numerous auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.9-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; flat or slightly concave interorbital area, dorsal head profile of adults with ventral bend at orbits; rounded preopercle, minute serrae mostly covered by skin and shallow indentation just above the angle; straight or slightly convex upper edge of operculum posterior nostril distinctly larger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, ventral edge smoothly curved at distal expansion; strongly projecting lower jaw, 2-4 rows of teeth at midlateral part (Ref. 89707).
头部轮廓有角的; 身体比较不扁长形与斑点更多间隔很密的超过 E. corallicola E. howlandi.(参考文献 37816) 身体与中央的鳍有大的黑色斑块, 大的向尾部.(参考文献 48635)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710) to a depth of at least 44 m; including outer reef slopes. More abundant on oceanic reefs and rare on coastal reefs (Ref. 89707). Feeds on crustaceans (mainly crabs), fishes, octopi, and squid. Solitary (Ref 90102).

发现于泻湖与临海礁石 (参考文献 9710) 到深度至少 44 公尺了。 吃甲壳动物 (主要地螃蟹) ,鱼,章鱼与乌贼。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 肯亞南至南非的納塔爾而且東至中太平洋。 未知的從紅海,波斯灣與夏威夷。 記錄自歐羅巴島了。 (MNHN 1992-0498, 參考文獻 33390) 時常與 玳瑁石斑魚〔Epinephelus quoyanus〕 巢斑石斑魚〔Epinephelus faveatus〕 黑駁石斑魚〔Epinephelus corallicola〕 荷氏石斑魚〔Epinephelus howlandi〕 互相混淆。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 16 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29, mean 27.9 (based on 718 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00649 - 0.01614), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.