Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)

Prussian carp
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | 谷歌图片
Image of Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp)
Carassius gibelio
Picture by Jawad, L.A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.1 - 7.5; dH range: 12 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - ? m.   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 62°N - 35°N, 10°W - 155°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: usually considered as native from central Europe to Siberia or introduced to European waters from eastern Asia. Clear and definite data on original distribution in Europe are not available due to introduction, confusion with Carassius auratus and complex modes of reproduction. At present, widely distributed and commonly stocked together with Cyprinus carpio which is transported throughout Europe. Absent in northern Baltic basin, Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and Mediterranean islands.
亞洲: 西伯利亞。 引入而且現在廣泛地在歐洲各處分佈了。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 10.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 46.6 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 88166); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body silvery-brown in color; last simple anal and dorsal rays strongly serrated; 37-52 gill rakers; lateral line with 29-33 scales; freed edge of dorsal concave or straight; anal fin with 5½ branched rays; and peritoneum black (Ref. 59043).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739).

东欧或野生形式的金鱼.(参考文献 1739) 杂食动物.(参考文献 41072) 能从未受精的卵 (gynogenesis) 繁殖。 (参考文献 41851) 湖栖的个体移进河口中避开溶氧量低的水冬天时。 (参考文献 39176)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Females spawn with several other species, for example Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius, but the eggs just develop without being actually fertilized resulting in a female only population (Ref. 2059). In Europe, populations considered as triploid and only females. But in some populations, it should be possible to find up to 25% of males which should be diploid (Ref. 40476). "There are also all-female populations in which all individuals are triploids. Triploids are sperm parasites of other cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus rutilus and Abramis brama. Older individuals spawn earlier in season than younger ones. Males move to spawning sites before females. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Sticky eggs are attached to water plants or submerged objects" (Ref. 59043).亞洲: 西伯利亞。 引入而且現在廣泛地在歐洲各處分佈了。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的 (Ref. 83969)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

更多信息

国家
FAO区域
生态系
标本纪录
简介
Stocks
生态学
食性
食物相
食物消耗量
定量
俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01201 - 0.01587), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.13; tm=1-4).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.