分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.1 - 7.5; dH range: 12 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). 溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 62°N - 35°N, 10°W - 155°E
Europe and Asia: usually considered as native from central Europe to Siberia or introduced to European waters from eastern Asia. Clear and definite data on original distribution in Europe are not available due to introduction, confusion with Carassius auratus and complex modes of reproduction. At present, widely distributed and commonly stocked together with Cyprinus carpio which is transported throughout Europe. Absent in northern Baltic basin, Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and Mediterranean islands.
亞洲: 西伯利亞。 引入而且現在廣泛地在歐洲各處分佈了。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 10.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 46.6 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 88166); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)
Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body silvery-brown in color; last simple anal and dorsal rays strongly serrated; 37-52 gill rakers; lateral line with 29-33 scales; freed edge of dorsal concave or straight; anal fin with 5½ branched rays; and peritoneum black (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739).
东欧或野生形式的金鱼.(参考文献 1739) 杂食动物.(参考文献 41072) 能从未受精的卵 (gynogenesis) 繁殖。 (参考文献 41851) 湖栖的个体移进河口中避开溶氧量低的水冬天时。 (参考文献 39176)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Females spawn with several other species, for example Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius, but the eggs just develop without being actually fertilized resulting in a female only population (Ref. 2059). In Europe, populations considered as triploid and only females. But in some populations, it should be possible to find up to 25% of males which should be diploid (Ref. 40476). "There are also all-female populations in which all individuals are triploids. Triploids are sperm parasites of other cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio,
Rutilus rutilus and Abramis brama. Older individuals spawn earlier in season than younger ones. Males move to spawning sites before females. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Sticky eggs are attached to water plants or submerged objects" (Ref. 59043).亞洲: 西伯利亞。 引入而且現在廣泛地在歐洲各處分佈了。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.01136 - 0.01530), b=3.04 (3.00 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.1 (4.7 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.13; tm=1-4).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 127 [46, 316] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.704 [0.322, 1.459] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [16, 18] % ; Omega3 = 1.25 [0.56, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.4 [5.6, 40.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.7 [4.8, 50.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.04 [0.58, 1.92] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.