Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)

Prussian carp
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Carassius gibelio
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bloch.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; zoetwater; brakwater benthopelagisch; pH range: 7.1 - 7.5; dH range: 12 - ?; potamodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 62°N - 35°N, 10°W - 155°E

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Europe and Asia: usually considered as native from central Europe to Siberia or introduced to European waters from eastern Asia. Clear and definite data on original distribution in Europe are not available due to introduction, confusion with Carassius auratus and complex modes of reproduction. At present, widely distributed and commonly stocked together with Cyprinus carpio which is transported throughout Europe. Absent in northern Baltic basin, Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and Mediterranean islands.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 10.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 46.6 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 88166); common length : 20.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 556); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 10 jaren (Ref. 59043)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body silvery-brown in color; last simple anal and dorsal rays strongly serrated; 37-52 gill rakers; lateral line with 29-33 scales; freed edge of dorsal concave or straight; anal fin with 5½ branched rays; and peritoneum black (Ref. 59043).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Females spawn with several other species, for example Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius, but the eggs just develop without being actually fertilized resulting in a female only population (Ref. 2059). In Europe, populations considered as triploid and only females. But in some populations, it should be possible to find up to 25% of males which should be diploid (Ref. 40476). "There are also all-female populations in which all individuals are triploids. Triploids are sperm parasites of other cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus rutilus and Abramis brama. Older individuals spawn earlier in season than younger ones. Males move to spawning sites before females. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Sticky eggs are attached to water plants or submerged objects" (Ref. 59043).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Potential pest (Ref. 83969)





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01201 - 0.01587), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.13; tm=1-4).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.