Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Pholidae
(Gunnels) > Pholinae
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Northwest Pacific: southern Hokkaido (Japan). Pholis ornata (Girard, 1854) reported from Peter the Great Bay and the Korean Peninsula (Japan Sea) may be this species. However, some authors classify this as a subspecies of Pholis ornata.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43239)
Maximum length based on a specimen from Hokkaido (Ref. 43239).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mecklenburg, C.W., 2003. Family Pholidae Gill 1893 - gunnels. Calif. Acad. Sci. Annotated Checklists of Fishes (9):11. (Ref. 48978)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00186 (0.00077 - 0.00451), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .