Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển Cùng sống ở rạn san hô; Mức độ sâu 1 - 30 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 32°N - 34°S, 27°E - 170°W
Indo-West Pacific: Reported from Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), East Africa south to the Chalumna River, South Africa (Ref. 11228) and east to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Replaced by closely related Sufflamen albicaudatus in the Red Sea (Ref. 37816).
Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 30573)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 26-28; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 23 - 26. Juveniles dark brown above, white below (Ref. 1602). Adult variable in color; the bar running through the pectoral base can either be yellow or black, and some individuals may be largely yellowish posteriorly (Ref. 1602).
Inhabit coastal to outer reefs. Habitats from silty lagoons to pristine outer reef walls (Ref. 48637). Occur in shallow lagoon and seaward reefs. Solitary and territorial. Feed on a wide variety of invertebrates. Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Monogamous (Ref. 52884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
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Male defends a defined territory, within which a female resides. On the day prior to spawning, female pushes her snout into the sandy bottom repeatedly and removes small stones and pieces of coral at several sites. Adhesive eggs are deposited on the sandy bottoms or in a small cavity of the reef covered with sand. Female fans the eggs and defends the nest, while male patrols around female (Ref. 8603). Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs (Ref. 116451). Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3050 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01193 - 0.03493), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 69278
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .