Synanceia verrucosa, Stonefish : fisheries, aquarium

Synanceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Stonefish
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Synanceia verrucosa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Synanceia verrucosa (Stonefish)
Synanceia verrucosa
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Synanceiinae
Etymology: Synanceia: Greek, syn = as a whole + Greek, aggeion = vein.  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien rifbewoner; standvastig; diepteverspreiding 0 - 30 m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 30°E - 139°W

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Queensland, Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3503); common length : 27.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5450); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 2.4 kg (Ref. 11441)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 12 - 14; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 5-7; Anale stekels 3; Anale zachte stralen: 5 - 6. Colors matching surroundings and extremely well-camouflaged (Ref. 48635). Pelvic and anal fins spines are similarly developed. 12-14 stout grooved spines, each with a large venom sack at its base (Ref. 37816).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Most widespread stonefish (Ref. 4313). Found on sandy or rubble areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with algae (Ref. 5213, 5503). Solitary species (Ref. 37816). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction. World's most venomous fish (Ref. 37816). Uncommon in markets. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Also Ref. 57406.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Poss, S.G. and K.V. Rama Rao, 1984. Scorpaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3503)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 June 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 3300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00617 - 0.04260), b=3.05 (2.83 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.