Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; salmastro demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 75 - m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 17°S - 36°S, 10°E - 34°E (Ref. 114953)
Southeast Atlantic: Namibia to central Natal, South Africa. Record from Madagascar is uncertain (Ref. 3919).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3919)
Found from the surf line to about 70 m depth (Ref. 5578), also reported as common in shallow waters to at least 75 m depth (Ref. 114953); also enters estuaries (Ref. 27121). Feeds on crustaceans, bivalves, polychaete worms and small bony fishes (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature at ca. 59 cm TL, females at 62-65 cm TL; born at ca. 23 cm TL. Produces litters of 2-10 pups (Ref. 114953). Taken by surf anglers (Ref. 3919). Flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 3919). It is parasitised by the monogeneans Pseudoleptobothrium christisoni on the dorsal skin surface (Ref. 124055) and Neoheterocotyle robii on the gill lamellae (Ref. 124054).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). 2-10 young born in the summer (Ref. 5578).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Rhinobatidae. p. 128-131. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3919)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Pesca: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si; Acquario: Commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.1 - 25.7, mean 22 °C (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00214 (0.00123 - 0.00371), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Molto basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione più di 14 anni (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .