Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia
(Perch-likes) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Sphaeramia: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, amia = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển Cùng sống ở rạn san hô; Mức độ sâu 0 - 5 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 31°N - 27°S, 32°E - 173°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Kiribati, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia; Belau to eastern Caroline and Mariana Islands in Micronesia.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 4329); common length : 8.9 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 37816)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 8; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 9; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 2; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 9. Greenish grey, with dark vertical bar from origin of spiny dorsal to just in front of anus; scattered spots on body, head and 1st dorsal membrane; pelvic fins dark (Ref. 4329, 48635).
Restricted to coastal waters, forming small aggregations among mangroves, rocks, debris, or piers of shallow sheltered shorelines. Feeds at night (early evening and just before day break), primarily on planktonic crustaceans. Courtship and spawning occur fortnightly (shortly before new moons and full moons). Eggs are incubated by the male for about 8 days. Larval phase pelagic. Sexual maturity is attained at 7 cm by males and at 6 cm by females (Ref. 1602).
Courtship and spawning occur on a semi-lunar cycle, shortly before full and new moons (Ref. 37816). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Males incubate up to 12,000 eggs for a period of about 8 days (Ref. 37816). After the pelagic larval phase, juveniles settle and grow at a rate of 3 to 6 mm per month (Ref. 37816).
Gon, O., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 546-561. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
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Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2452 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01251 - 0.04007), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Chiêù cao, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là dưới 15 tháng (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .