Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Perch-likes) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Sphaeramia: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, amia = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 5 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 31°N - 27°S, 32°E - 173°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Kiribati, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia; Belau to eastern Caroline and Mariana Islands in Micronesia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 4329); common length : 8.9 cm SL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 37816)
Spine dorsali (totale): 8; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 9; Spine anali 2; Raggi anali molli: 9. Greenish grey, with dark vertical bar from origin of spiny dorsal to just in front of anus; scattered spots on body, head and 1st dorsal membrane; pelvic fins dark (Ref. 4329, 48635).
Restricted to coastal waters, forming small aggregations among mangroves, rocks, debris, or piers of shallow sheltered shorelines. Feeds at night (early evening and just before day break), primarily on planktonic crustaceans. Courtship and spawning occur fortnightly (shortly before new moons and full moons). Eggs are incubated by the male for about 8 days. Larval phase pelagic. Sexual maturity is attained at 7 cm by males and at 6 cm by females (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Courtship and spawning occur on a semi-lunar cycle, shortly before full and new moons (Ref. 37816). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Males incubate up to 12,000 eggs for a period of about 8 days (Ref. 37816). After the pelagic larval phase, juveniles settle and grow at a rate of 3 to 6 mm per month (Ref. 37816).
Gon, O., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 546-561. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2452 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01251 - 0.04007), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .