Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède, 1802)

Leopard coralgrouper
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Plectropomus leopardus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Plectropomus leopardus (Leopard coralgrouper)
Plectropomus leopardus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 3 - 100 m (Ref. 9710).   熱帶; 24°C - ? (Ref. 2160); 35°N - 30°S, 99°E - 178°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Pacific: from Western Australia, eastward to the Caroline Islands and Fiji: from southern Japan to Australia (Queensland); also recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Often misidentified as Plectropomus maculatus.
西太平洋: 日本南部到澳洲 (昆士蘭省與西澳大利亞) 而且向東至加羅林群島與斐濟。 最近從東加記錄。 (參考文獻 53797) 時常被誤鑑成 斑鰓棘鱸〔Plectropomus maculatus〕

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 21 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 6390); common length : 35.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. ); 最大體重: 23.6 kg (Ref. 6390); 最大年齡: 26 年 (Ref. 3639)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 7 - 8; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII,11; A III,8; pectoral rays 14-17 (modally 16); lateral line scales 89-99, in longitudinal series 112-127 scales; interorbital space no embedded scales; gill rakers on first gill arch developed 1-3 + 6-10; front of jaws with a pair of large canine teeth and side of lower jaw with 1-4 large canines; body elongate, its greatest depth 2.9-3.6 in SL; truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin; pectoral fins 2.0-2.3 in HL; pelvic fins 2.0-2.4 in HL; Head, body and fins with numerous blue spots on red, pale grey or olive to dark brown background; caudal fin with a narrow white posterior margin except near the corners; juveniles (< 5 cm) brown on upper 2/3 of side with scattered blue spots, broad whitish stripe from eye to caudal fin base, white on lower head and yellowish ventrally on side (Ref. 4787, 54980, 90102).
顏色活著時橄欖色的到紅褐色的, 腹側灰白的有很多的細小圓, 在頭部與身體 (除了低的胸部與腹部以外) 與胸鰭基底上的黑色邊的藍色斑點; 只有 Plectropomus 眼的周圍具有一個接近完整藍色的環。 尾鰭有在後面的一個不明顯的深色條紋通常邊緣有一條白色的線看得見的沿著鰭的後緣的中央。 圓形的前鰓蓋骨,腹地下緣有 3-4根向前及向上的棘。 沒有鱗片在眼之間也不在吻上。 在縱向的系列中的 112-127個鱗片。 背鰭與臀鰭軟鰭條不延長到一個前面的葉內了。 臀鰭有凸狀外緣。 附註: (TL, 公分)=0.97+1.22;(SL, 公分) n=426.(參考文獻 1450)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs and mid-shelf reefs (Ref. 6390, 48635). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Inactive at night, hiding under ledges (Ref. 9710). Juveniles have a demersal existence in shallow water in reef habitats, especially around coral rubble (Ref. 27259). Adults feed mainly on fish (Ref. 6390), juveniles feed on small fish and invertebrates such as crustaceans and squid (Ref. 27261). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Form several spawning aggregations on a reef occurring around the new moon (Ref. 27259). Eggs float just below the surface (Ref. 6390). Larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6390). P. leopardus is used in cage culture; P. maculatus in Ref. 3081 was probably a mixture of P. maculatus and P. leopardus; the Plectropomus sp. used for the experiments reported in Capra et al., 1988 (Ref. 4719) consisted predominantly of P. leopardus, with some P. maculatus (M.F. Capra, pers. comm.). On the Great Barrier Reef, its maximum lifespan is 14 years (Ref. 37816).

棲息於潟湖礁與中層大陸棚的礁珊瑚礁繁盛區域。 (參考文獻 6390,48635) 不活躍的在晚上, 藏岩架下.(參考文獻 9710) 稚魚有一個在礁石棲地中的淺水區中的底棲生存, 尤其在珊瑚殘礫周圍.(參考文獻 27259) 成魚主要捕食魚。 (參考文獻 6390) 稚魚吃小魚與無脊椎動物例如甲殼動物與烏賊。 (參考文獻 27261) 一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體.(參考文獻 55367) 形成一些一個礁上產卵群集發生於新月期左右。 (參考文獻 27259) 卵飄浮緊鄰水面下。 (參考文獻 6390) 仔魚是大洋性的。 (參考文獻 6390) P. leopardus 被用於箱籠養殖; P. maculatus 參考文獻 3081 可能是 P. maculatus P. leopardus 的一個混合; Plectropomus sp. 用來了 P. leopardus 組成主要的在參考文獻 4719 被報告的實驗, 有一些 P. maculatus(M.F. Capra , pers. comm.)。 在大堡礁上,它的最大壽命是 14 年。 (參考文獻 37816)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

A monandric species (Ref. 55367) but now confirmed for diandry (Ref. 103751). Estimated size at sex change occurs at 32.1 cm TL and 16 years of age (Ref. 55367). Courtship behavior: a male approaches 1 or more females from behind, changing color from dark brown to brownish white while the edges of median fins remained dark. As the male gets near, it flicks its dorsal and pelvic fins eliciting a mild lateral display from the female. The male rolls onto its side and shakes from side to side as its abdomen passes the female. Takes 15 seconds (Ref. 2160).西太平洋: 日本南部到澳洲 (昆士蘭省與西澳大利亞) 而且向東至加羅林群島與斐濟。 最近從東加記錄。 (參考文獻 53797) 時常被誤鑑成 斑鰓棘鱸〔Plectropomus maculatus〕

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 4821)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 商業性
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1194 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01023 - 0.01289), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-4; tmax=26; Fec=457,900).
Prior r = 0.71, 95% CL = 0.47 - 1.06, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.