Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bleak
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Native range
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Alburnus alburnus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Alburnus alburnus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Alburninae
Etymology: Alburnus: From the city of Al Bura, where the fish was known (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - ? m (Ref. 30578).   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 68°N - 35°N, 6°W - 60°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Maritza drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. In Anatolia, Marmara basin. Locally introduced in Spain, Portugal and Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐洲: 法國到烏拉河與 Emba.(參考文獻 33550) 記錄來自義大利 (參考文獻 27118) 與希臘了。 (參考文獻 27610) 亞得里亞海的流域: 從 Soca 流域到安科納省 (斯洛維尼亞,瑞士, 義大利), 低的 Zrmanja 與 Neretva 流域.( 克羅埃西亞, 波士尼亞共和國-Herzigovina) Tyrrhenian 流域: Arno 流域 (義大利). 希臘, 馬其頓: 湖 Doiran。 在 Ricica(克羅埃西亞) , Ombrone 與 Tevere 流域 (義大利) 引入。 (參考文獻 59043). 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 9.9, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大體重: 60.00 g (Ref. 30578)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 2 - 4; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 14 - 20; 脊椎骨: 41 - 44. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the possession of the following characters: origin of anal fin below branched dorsal rays 4-5; lateral line with 45-48 + 3 scales; anal fin with 17-20½ branched rays; 16-22 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed from anus to pelvic base; lateral stripe absent in life, faint or absent in preserved specimens; and mouth slightly superior (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 40476.
尾鰭有 19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196) 也參考文獻 40476.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits open waters of lakes and medium to large rivers. Forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters during winter. Adults occur in shoals near the surface. Larvae live in littoral zone of rivers and lakes while juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on plankton, including crustaceans (Ref. 30578) and insects (Ref. 9696). Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Excellent as bait for carnivorous fishes. May be captured using the smallest hook and a fly as bait. Its flesh is tasty (Ref. 30578). Of little interest to commercial or sport fisheries in its native range because of its small size (Ref. 1739). Scales were previously utilized in making Essence d"Orient, a coating for artificial pearls (Ref. 59043).

成魚出現在淺灘接近水表面。 主要捕食浮游生物, 包括甲殼動物 (參考文獻 30578) 與昆蟲。 (參考文獻 9696) 卵被沈澱在沙子,礫石與岩石底部上面, 於大約 0.3 公尺深 (參考文獻 59043) 。 優良的當作釣肉食性的魚的魚餌。 可以用最小的鉤與用毛鉤當餌捕獲。 它的肉是好吃的。 (參考文獻 30578) 在它的原產地的經濟漁業或遊釣漁業對它少有興趣由於它的體型小.(參考文獻 1739)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Eggs hatch in about 4 days (Ref. 59043). 歐洲: 法國到烏拉河與 Emba.(參考文獻 33550) 記錄來自義大利 (參考文獻 27118) 與希臘了。 (參考文獻 27610) 亞得里亞海的流域: 從 Soca 流域到安科納省 (斯洛維尼亞,瑞士, 義大利), 低的 Zrmanja 與 Neretva 流域.( 克羅埃西亞, 波士尼亞共和國-Herzigovina) Tyrrhenian 流域: Arno 流域 (義大利). 希臘, 馬其頓: 湖 Doiran。 在 Ricica(克羅埃西亞) , Ombrone 與 Tevere 流域 (義大利) 引入。 (參考文獻 59043). 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 誘餌: usually
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00504 - 0.00790), b=3.07 (3.02 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.29 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-3; K=0.19; tmax=7; Fec=1,500).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.