Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Ikan bertulan sejati > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; air tawar bentopelagis; potamodromous (Ref. 59043).   Temperate; 6°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 50°N - 44°N, 8°E - 21°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Europe: Danube drainage. Introduced into other European river basins when their numbers declined due to ecological changes in the Danube. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 11243); common length : 70.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 682); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 52.0 kg (Ref. 719); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 20 Tahun (Ref. 59043)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 3 - 5; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 8-14; Duri dubur 3-5; Sirip dubur lunak: 7 - 14; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 66 - 72. Distinguished from other species of Salmonidae in central and eastern Europe by the following combination of characters: lateral line with 180-200 scales; no red spots and white fin margins; head dorsally flattened and long ( 22-24% SL); body roundish; caudal fin deeply emarginate; large size (in undisturbed areas); usually 13-19 gill rakers (Ref. 59043).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Usually solitary, inhabits deeper regions of swift flowing streams with oxygen rich waters. Adults are territorial but not solitary (Ref. 26170). Carnivore. Juveniles feed mainly on invertebrates and adults mostly on fishes, but also prey on amphibians, reptiles, small mammals and waterfowl (Ref. 26170). Important sport fish with minimum size of catch from 50-55 cm. Transplantations of young artificially incubated and reared fish have not been successful. Depletion of stocks due to overexploitation, industrial pollution, waterway redirection and badly designed or non-existent fish ladders in dams and reservoirs. Territorial, but migrates short distances upstream for spawning (Ref. 556). Reported to be one of the biggest freshwater fishes of the world, reaching a length of over 2 m and weight of over 100 kg (Ref. 26170); which is probably erroneous (A. Mangold, pers. comm.).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Sexually mature fish migrate upstream into smaller and shallower (0.3-1.5 m deep) streams (Ref. 26170), usually in upper reaches of tributaries (Ref. 59043). Males arrive first at spawning sites. Males defend females against other individuals. Spawning usually occurs during daytime (Ref. 59043). Spawns on gravelly bottom where female makes a shallow hole where the eggs are laid and covered with gravel (Ref. 682). Both sexes covered the eggs with substrate. They both defend the spawning site up to 2 weeks after spawning. Eggs usually hatch after 25-40 days. Larvae stay in gravel until yolk sac is absorbed after 8-14 days (Ref. 59043). Young remain near spawning area feeding on bottom fauna. Spawns with snow melt, in shallow water in Danube or affluents (Ref. 682).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  terancam (EN) (B2ab(ii,iii)); Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: komersial; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
FAO(Budidaya air: production; Perikanan: production; publication : search) | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00726 - 0.02086), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.74 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (tm=5; tmax=20).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Very high.