Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eurasian minnow
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Phoxinus phoxinus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Phoxinus: Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   溫帶; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E

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Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.
歐亞大陸: 不列顛群島與西班牙東部到西伯利亞東部。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 5.1, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3; 背的软条 (总数): 6-8; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 6 - 8; 脊椎骨: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).

群居的.(参考文献 2196) 生活在寒冷的,流动或静止的,和也溶氧度高的, 在砾石底部上的水域 (参考文献 9696)。 吃藻类,植物残枝 (在河中) ,软件动物,甲壳动物与昆虫。 (参考文献 30578) 为产卵在中溯河回游水浅的砾石区域。 重要的实验用鱼, 对于在鱼的知觉器官上的研究。 意谓最大的年龄是 6 年.(参考文献 41616)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 不列顛群島與西班牙東部到西伯利亞東部。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  可能有害的 (Ref. 13686)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 水族馆: 商业性; 诱饵: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00692 - 0.00912), b=3.12 (3.08 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.