Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft, 1870)

Australian lungfish
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Neoceratodus forsteri
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Sarcopterygii 肉鳍亚纲 (叶- 有鳍的鱼) (lobe-finned fishes) > Ceratodontiformes (Australian lungfishes) > Neoceratodontidae (Australian lungfish)
Etymology: Neoceratodus: Greek, neos = new + Greek, keras = horn + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 居于水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   熱帶; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 24°S - 26°S

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Oceania: southern Queensland, Australia in Burnett and Mary River systems. Introduced successfully in southeastern Queensland. International trade restricted (CITES II, since 1.7.1975).
大洋洲: 在伯內特與瑪麗河流域的澳洲昆士蘭南部。 成功地在昆士蘭東南部中引入。 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用2, 自從 1.7.1975 以後)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 83.4, range 81 - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 26188); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5259); 最大体重: 40.0 kg (Ref. 5259)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Body stout and elongate. Dorsal fin originating on the middle of the back, confluent with caudal and anal fins. Body covered with large, bony, overlapping scales. The head is flattened, with conical profile. The eyes are small; the mouth is reaching about half the distance to eye. The pectoral fins are large and flipper-like in ventral position just behind the head; the pelvic fins are also flipper-like, situated far back on the body.
身体矮胖与细长的。 在背部中央上的背鳍起点, 与尾鳍汇和与臀鳍。 身体覆盖着大的,多骨的,和部分重叠的鳞片。 头部被平的, 有锥形的轮廓。 眼很小; 嘴巴达到大约一半的距离到眼睛。 胸鳍在腹的位置中是大而像鳍状肢一样的在头部正后方; 腹鳍也是像鳍状肢一样的, 位于相距遥远地在身体上。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits mud, sand or gravel bottoms (Ref. 44894). Sluggish species that prefers still or slow-flowing waters, usually in deep pools. During period of drought, it can tolerate stagnant conditions by breathing air, surfacing 1-2 times per hour; however, it lacks the ability to survive dry spells by aestivation; it is a facultative air-breather that will die if forced to depend on air breathing (Ref. 36739, 44894). The sound of the lungfish exhaling air at the surface prior to inhaling a fresh breath has been likened to that made by a small bellows. Nocturnally active (Ref. 44894). Feeds on frogs, tadpoles, fishes, shrimp, earthworms, snails, aquatic plants and native fruits fallen from trees overhanging the creeks (Ref. 36739, 44894). It browses among the detritus, using its electroreceptors to pick up hidden mollusks, worms or crustaceans. Protected by law. Fossil records show that this species remained virtually unchanged for over 380 million years. The Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco had a specimen of 1 m length, 20 kg weight, and more than 65 years of age. In 1933, an Australian lungfish was transported as a fully mature male (10 yrs. old at maturity) to the Shedd Aquarium, Chicago (C. Skonieczny, pers. comm. 11/08, e-mail: CSkonieczny@sheddaquarium.org).

栖息于泥,沙子或砾石底部。 (参考文献 44894) 偏爱静止或流动很慢水域的缓动性的种, 通常在深水池。 在干旱的期间,它能藉由呼吸空气容忍污浊环境, 升至水面 1-2 倍每小时; 然而,它缺乏能力平安渡过夏蛰的干旱期; 如果强迫仰赖空气呼吸,它是将死的一个官能性呼吸空气的鱼类。 (参考文献 36739,44894) 在吸入最近的呼吸之前呼气空气在水表面的肺鱼的声音已经被比喻到哪一制造被一个小膜盒。 夜行活跃.(参考文献 44894) 吃被从悬于小溪之上的树掉下的青蛙,蝌蚪,鱼,虾,蚯蚓,蜗牛, 水生植物與原生的果實。 (參考文獻 36739,44894) 它在碎屑之中吃, 使用它的電感受體拾起隱藏的軟體動物,蠕蟲或甲殼動物。 藉著法律被保護。 化石記錄顯示這種保持事實上不變超過一億年。 在舊金山的 Steinhart 水族館有了 1 的標本公尺長度, 20 公斤重量 , 與超過 65 歲。 傳送的一個澳洲的肺魚作為一個完全成熟的雄魚 (大約 20個歲舊的成熟時) 到 Shedd 水族館, 芝加哥在 1933 年可能是接近 100 歲從 2005 年起 (C. Skonieczny , pers. comm。, 電子郵件: CSkonieczny@sheddaquarium.org).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

The lungfish spawns from August to October; the eggs resemble small transparent grapes and are frequently found attached to floating stands of water-hyacinth. Spawning appears to occur in a series of three phases: in the first, a pair of fish move together, roaming about an area, presumably in search of a suitable spawning site; in the second presumably the male follows the female, nudging her flanks; finally, the fish plunge through the surrounding weed, the male following the female and fertilising the eggs as they are shed.大洋洲: 在伯內特與瑪麗河流域的澳洲昆士蘭南部。 成功地在昆士蘭東南部中引入。 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用2, 自從 1.7.1975 以後)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 115941)


CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 自给性渔业
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 2.0039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00161 - 0.01131), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (K=0.11; tmax >30; tm approx. 15-20 yrs.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.