Sarcopterygii (kwastvinnigen) (lobe-finned fishes)
(Australian lungfishes) > Neoceratodontidae
Etymology: Neoceratodus: Greek, neos = new + Greek, keras = horn + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; zoetwater demersaal; potamodroom (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 24°S - 26°S
Oceania: southern Queensland, Australia in Burnett and Mary River systems. Introduced successfully in southeastern Queensland. International trade restricted (CITES II, since 1.7.1975).
Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd
Maturity: Lm 83.4, range 81 - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 26188); common length : 100.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5259); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 40.0 kg (Ref. 5259)
Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 0; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 0. Body stout and elongate. Dorsal fin originating on the middle of the back, confluent with caudal and anal fins. Body covered with large, bony, overlapping scales. The head is flattened, with conical profile. The eyes are small; the mouth is reaching about half the distance to eye. The pectoral fins are large and flipper-like in ventral position just behind the head; the pelvic fins are also flipper-like, situated far back on the body.
Inhabits mud, sand or gravel bottoms (Ref. 44894). Sluggish species that prefers still or slow-flowing waters, usually in deep pools. During period of drought, it can tolerate stagnant conditions by breathing air, surfacing 1-2 times per hour; however, it lacks the ability to survive dry spells by aestivation; it is a facultative air-breather that will die if forced to depend on air breathing (Ref. 36739, 44894). The sound of the lungfish exhaling air at the surface prior to inhaling a fresh breath has been likened to that made by a small bellows. Nocturnally active (Ref. 44894). Feeds on frogs, tadpoles, fishes, shrimp, earthworms, snails, aquatic plants and native fruits fallen from trees overhanging the creeks (Ref. 36739, 44894). It browses among the detritus, using its electroreceptors to pick up hidden mollusks, worms or crustaceans. Protected by law. Fossil records show that this species remained virtually unchanged for over 380 million years. The Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco had a specimen of 1 m length, 20 kg weight, and more than 65 years of age. In 1933, an Australian lungfish was transported as a fully mature male (10 yrs. old at maturity) to the Shedd Aquarium, Chicago (C. Skonieczny, pers. comm. 11/08, e-mail: CSkonieczny@sheddaquarium.org).
The lungfish spawns from August to October; the eggs resemble small transparent grapes and are frequently found attached to floating stands of water-hyacinth. Spawning appears to occur in a series of three phases: in the first, a pair of fish move together, roaming about an area, presumably in search of a suitable spawning site; in the second presumably the male follows the female, nudging her flanks; finally, the fish plunge through the surrounding weed, the male following the female and fertilising the eggs as they are shed.
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)
Gevaarlijk voor mensen
Gebruik door de mens
Visserij: visserij voor eigen gebruik
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 2.0039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 10.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179
): zeer laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd meer dan 14 jaar (K=0.11; tmax >30; tm approx. 15-20 yrs.).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .