Pollachius pollachius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pollack
把你的觀察加入 Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pollachius pollachius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
上傳你的 相片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos |     Google 影像
Image of Pollachius pollachius (Pollack)
Pollachius pollachius
Picture by Ueberschär, B.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Gadiformes (Cods) 鱈形目 (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks) 鱈科 (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Pollachius: Scottish dialect, podlock, paddle = bumpfish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 40 - 200 m (Ref. 6302), usually 40 - 100 m (Ref. 54707).   溫帶; 72°N - 36°N, 25°W - 28°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Iceland, the Faeroes and Norway to the Bay of Biscay (Ref. 1371); also southern Baltic Sea (Ref. 89342) with records from Poland, Latvia and Estonia (Refs. 36252, 52079).
東北大西洋: 挪威,法羅群島與冰島到比斯開灣。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 41.0, range 42 - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 75.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大體重: 18.1 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 1371)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 29-33; 臀鰭軟條: 27 - 30; 脊椎骨: 52 - 55. Lower jaw distinctly projecting beyond upper ones. Lacks a chin barbel. Dark lateral line that sharply curves over the pectoral fin and continues over whole body. No dark spot at pectoral fin base. Dorsal and anal fin interspaces short. Sensory canals with large pores on head. Body color is variable; dark dorsally, sharply distinguished from silver-gray sides and belly; the upper part of the body with yellow to orange streaks or blotches; the lateral line greenish. The fins uniformly dark except for the pelvic fins which are yellowish.
下頜明顯突出超過上面的一些。 側線連續的全身之上。 在胸鰭基底的沒有深色斑點。 背鰭與臀鰭留短的間隔。 感覺管在頭部上有大的孔。 體色是可變的; 黑的背面, 銳利地與銀灰色側邊與腹面區分; 身體有的上半部黃色到橘色的條紋或斑塊; 側線呈綠色的。 鰭全黑色除了腹鰭那是淡黃色的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in inshore waters but also down to 200 m depth, in areas with hard bottoms. Juveniles are pelagic, spending 2-3 years near the coast including rocky areas, kelp beds, sandy shores and estuaries (Ref. 1371, 58137, 89343, 89362). Juveniles may form schools with saithe (Pollachius virens) (Ref. 88187), and have also been found solitary and defending their feeding territory (Refs. 42174, 89363). Larger individuals move to the open sea and are often found around rocky areas at 40-100 m depth (Ref. 1371). Also observed around shipwrecks and oil platforms (Ref. 88187). Adults occur singly or in small dispersed shoals but is known to form dense shoals on spawning grounds (Ref. 89364). Suggested to undertake spawning migrations (Ref. 88171). Caught as bycatch in cod and saithe fisheries. Flesh is dry but of good flavor (Ref. 35388). Classified as a "hearing generalist" (89365); has also been found to produce sound. Juveniles have been reported to make repeated short grunts during competitive feeding and aggressive encounters (89366).

大洋性到大洋底棲性魚種, 大部份接近海岸硬底質上。 大部份捕食魚與附隨地吃頭足類動與甲殼動物 (蝦與螃蟹).(參考文獻 1371) 在鱈魚與 saithe 漁場中捕捉如誤捕了。 肉是乾但是好滋味.(參考文獻 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous and gonochorous (Ref. 205).東北大西洋: 挪威,法羅群島與冰島到比斯開灣。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 16 October 2013

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
神經毒
速度
泳型
鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

工具

特別的報告

下載 XML

網路資源

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 11.9, mean 8.9 (based on 283 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00614 - 0.00855), b=3.07 (3.02 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.19; tmax=8).
Prior r = 0.63, 95% CL = 0.42 - 0.95, Based on 3 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.