(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Poecilia: Greek, poikilos = with a lot of colours (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; eau douce; saumâtre benthopélagique; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; non migrateur. Tropical; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 14°N - 2°N, 67°W - 52°W
South America: Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas. Widely introduced and established elsewhere, mainly for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral effects on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Africa: Feral populations reported from the coastal reaches of Natal rivers from Durban southwards, as well as in the Kuruman Eye and Lake Otjikoto in Namibia (Ref. 7248). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Taille / Poids / Âge
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 59043); 6.0 cm SL (female); common length : 2.8 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 12193)
Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 7-8; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 8 - 10
Inhabits warm springs and their effluents, weedy ditches and canals (Ref. 5723). Found in various habitats, ranging from highly turbid water in ponds, canals and ditches at low elevations to pristine mountain streams at high elevations (Ref. 11225). Occurs in wide variety of habitats with low predation pressure, usually in very small streams and densely vegetated lakes and springs (Ref. 59043). Has a wide salinity range but requires fairly warm temperatures (23-24 °C) and quiet vegetated water for survival (Ref. 7248, 44894, 79840). Feeds on zooplankton, small insects and detritus. One of the most popular aquarium fishes with many standardized varieties. Used in genetics research. Female reaches 5 cm SL (Ref. 2847). Males mature at 2 months and females at 3 months of age (Ref. 1672). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539). A very popular and widely available species in the aquarium trade. In Australia, wild populations were established prior to the 1970s, undoubtedly the result of thoughtless aquarists discarding unwanted pets (Ref. 44894). Maximum length for female taken from Ref. 43281.
Males are about half the size of females with colorful tail and caudal fin; the anal fin is transformed into a gonopodium for internal fertilization. Males are continuously chasing and mating females. Females can store sperms for later fertilization and may produce young every four weeks. Pregnant females are recognizable by black triangle between anal and pelvic fins. After a gestation period of four to six weeks females give birth to 20-40 live young. No parental care is exercised and parents may even prey on their young.
Rodriguez, C.M., 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Poeciliini (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Copeia 1997(4):663-679. (Ref. 26855)
Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Menace pour l'homme
Utilisations par l'homme
Pêcheries: sans intérêt; Aquarium: Commercial
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00746 - 0.02125), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.3 (0.2 - 0.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 14 growth studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179
): Haut, temps minimum de doublement de population inférieur à 15 mois (tm=0.16-0.25; Fec=20-40 with multiple spawning per year).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .