Rutilus rutilus, Roach : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Roach
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Rutilus rutilus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Rutilus: Latin, rutilus = reddish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 15 - ? m. 溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 71°N - 36°N, 10°W - 155°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: north to Pyrenees and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages (Caspian basin); Aegean basin in Pinios, Vardar, Vegoritis, Kastoria, Struma and Maritza drainages. Asia: Marmara basin and lower Sakarya in Anatolia, Aral basin, and Siberia from Ob eastward to Lena drainages. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Great Britain north of 56 N, Scandinavia north of 69° N. Locally introduced in Spain; introduced and invasive in northeastern Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐洲: 排除西班牙,義大利,希臘與愛爾蘭。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 被認為了一個有價值的種在歐洲的淡水漁場由於釣魚與商業的食物但是傾向在區域中的一個討厭的東西在那裡它已經變得確定。 亞種: 裡海的 Rutilus rutilus caspicus; Rutilus rutilus heckeli; Rutilus rutilus fluviatilis;(參考文獻 683) Rutilus rutilus aralensis;(參考文獻 11145,13403,39702) Rutilus rutilus schelkovnikovi Derzhavin, 阿拉斯河河流域中的 1926; Rutilus rutilus uzboicus 冰山, 在土庫曼的 Uzboi 山谷中的 1932.(參考文獻 39702) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.2 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 88166); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 1.8 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 14 年 (Ref. 41616)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 9-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 9 - 13; 脊椎骨: 39 - 41. The only species of the genus in Atlantic basin north of Pyrénées which can be distinguished from its congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins and Apennine Peninsula by the combination of the following characters: 39-41 + 2-3 (41-44 total) scales along lateral line; dorsal and anal fins with 10½ branched rays; body laterally compressed, depth 25-35% SL; mouth terminal; snout pointed; iris from yellow in juveniles to deep red in adults; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins orange to red; and no midlateral stripe. Differs from its congeners in Balkan Peninsula by uniquely possessing 10½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 96829.
尾鰭有 18-19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in a wide variety of habitats, mainly in lowland areas. Most abundant in nutrient-rich lakes and large to medium sized rivers and backwaters. Also recorded from small lowland streams and from brackish coastal lagoons. In fast-flowing rivers, confined to stretches where backwaters or shelters allow for overwintering. Larvae and juveniles live in wide variety of littoral habitats. Preys predominantly on benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, plant material and detritus. May shift from littoral to pelagic habitats and between benthic food and zooplankton when abundance of a specific food item is high or for avoidance of predation and/or competition. Breeds among dense submerged vegetation in backwaters or lakes, flooded meadows or in shallow, fast-flowing river habitats on plant or gravel bottom. Undertakes short spawning migrations. Stays in backwaters or in deep parts of lakes to overwinter. Produces fertile hybrids with Abramis brama (Ref. 59043). Pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation and tree roots (Ref. 41678). There is only little commercial fishing for this species, but valued for recreational fishing. Utilized fresh and dried or salted; can be pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

成魚棲息於緩慢流動或靜止又泥濘的水域。 (參考文獻 9696,44894) 豐富的在河,湖,管與水庫中; 在波羅的海與黑海的半淡鹹水族群是溯河洄游產卵的。 (參考文獻 556,44894) 能在品質差又甚至污染的水繁榮。 (參考文獻 9988) 雜食性,吃昆蟲,甲殼動物,軟體動物與植物。 成魚偏愛覓食植物.(參考文獻 30578,44894) 淡黃色的卵被發現依附於植物與樹根。 (參考文獻 41678) 仔魚是底棲的。 有唯一的小經濟性的漁捕對於這個魚種, 但是為娛樂的釣魚評價.。 生鮮使用與乾燥或鹽醃; 可能是油鍋炸的﹐火烤的與燒烤的。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in shoals among dense among dense submerged vegetation in backwaters or lakes, flooded meadows or in shallow, fast-flowing river habitats on plant or gravel bottom. Eggs are sticky and hatch in about 12 days (Ref. 59043). Pale yellow eggs are attached to vegetation and tree roots (Ref. 41678).歐洲: 排除西班牙,義大利,希臘與愛爾蘭。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247) 被認為了一個有價值的種在歐洲的淡水漁場由於釣魚與商業的食物但是傾向在區域中的一個討厭的東西在那裡它已經變得確定。 亞種: 裡海的 Rutilus rutilus caspicus; Rutilus rutilus heckeli; Rutilus rutilus fluviatilis;(參考文獻 683) Rutilus rutilus aralensis;(參考文獻 11145,13403,39702) Rutilus rutilus schelkovnikovi Derzhavin, 阿拉斯河河流域中的 1926; Rutilus rutilus uzboicus 冰山, 在土庫曼的 Uzboi 山谷中的 1932.(參考文獻 39702) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 59043)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00706 - 0.00854), b=3.16 (3.13 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.9 (5.2 - 10.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 17 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.10-0.21; tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 43.6 [20.9, 89.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.653 [0.365, 1.171] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.3, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.8 [0.4, 1.8] g/100g ; Selenium = 4.74 [1.34, 16.88] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34 [11, 109] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.61 [0.35, 1.21] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.