Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Goldfish
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Carassius auratus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335);  auratus: From the words carassius--Latin of karass (common name for these fishes in Eurasia) and auratus, meaning gilded (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898).   亞熱帶的; 0°C - 41°C (Ref. 35682); 53°N - 22°N

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Asia: central Asia and China (Ref. 7050) and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
亞洲: 中亞與中國 , 與日本.(參考文獻 6390) 在世界各處引入。 金魚的亞洲形式.(參考文獻 1739) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27549); common length : 10.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9987); 最大年齡: 41 年 (Ref. 72468)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3 - 4; 背的軟條 (總數): 14-20; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鰭軟條: 4 - 7; 脊椎骨: 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998). Head without scales (Ref. 39167, 1998), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104, 1998). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168, 39104), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104).
身體矮胖的﹐粗的, 尾柄厚與短的.(參考文獻 1998) 頭部沒有鱗片 (參考文獻 39167,1998), 寬廣三角形的 (參考文獻 1998), 眼間隔寬的, 吻長度超過眼直徑, 上頜骨達到後鼻孔或不完全到眼睛 (參考文獻 39166) 觸鬚缺乏在上頜上.(參考文獻 39104,1998) 側線完整。 背鰭與臀鰭有鋸齒狀的硬棘,腹鰭短的﹐寬的與胸廓的。 雄魚的珠星細的, 在鰓蓋上, 有時背面與一些在胸鰭上。 輕易地以鯉魚雜交, 雜交大多數的特性介於兩者之間.(參考文獻 1998) 尾鰭有 17-19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196) 最後單一的臀鰭鰭條骨的而且在後部地鋸齒狀的; 沒有觸鬚.(參考文獻 43281) 顏色: 荒野捕捉的標本, 黃褐色的 (參考文獻 39168,39104), 暗藍灰色橄欖色﹐橄欖綠色的, 具有一個青銅色的光輝 (參考文獻 39104), 銀色的, 淺灰色的淡黃色的, 灰色-銀色的 (參考文獻 39169), 經過黃金 (時常有黑色的斑塊) 對乳脂色的白色;(參考文獻 1998) 黃白色或腹面白色的。 養殖型改變過深紅色, 紅色的-粉紅的﹐銀色的﹐和褐色﹐白色的, 黑色與這些顏色的組合.(參考文獻 39104)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).

棲息於河,湖,池塘與溝渠 (參考文獻 5258,10294) 且水流污濁或緩慢的地方.(參考文獻 30578) 大洋底棲性魚種.(參考文獻 58302) 捕食寬範圍的食物包括廠,小型甲殼動物,昆蟲,與碎屑。 (參考文獻 5258,10294) 他們更住在寒冷的水。 金魚產卵在水中植物上。 卵生的, 仔魚為大洋性的。 他們生存很久在繁殖場。 (參考文獻 7248) 記錄鹽度的極大是 17個 ppt(參考文獻 39171), 但是不能長時間忍受暴露於超過 15個 ppt.(參考文獻 39172,39174) 用作.一個實驗的種。 (參考文獻 4537) 對於池塘與水族館可作為觀賞魚.; 可食用的但是很少吃.(參考文獻 9987) 水族館保持: 形成 5個或更多個體的群體; 水族館最小體型 100 公分.(參考文獻 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Cold water temperatures during the winter months are necessary for proper ova development (Ref. 44091). Spawning takes place in shallow water among weeds, often where willow roots grow exposed in water (Ref. 39171), also meadows inundated by spring flood (Ref. 39176). Spawning activity begin just before dawn (Ref. 39168), to midafternoon (Ref. 39177). Individual fish spawn 3-10 lots of eggs at intervals of 8-10 days (Ref. 39180). Juveniles need high temperature to grow. Eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or submerged objects (Ref. 59043). Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808).亞洲: 中亞與中國 , 與日本.(參考文獻 6390) 在世界各處引入。 金魚的亞洲形式.(參考文獻 1739) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 August 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 高經濟性; 誘餌: occasionally
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01178 - 0.01545), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.