Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marina batypelagisk; havsvandrande (Ref. 51243); djupintervall 140 - 1440 m, usually 55 - 550 m (Ref. 117245). Deep-water; 80°N - 42°N, 71°W - 31°E
Eastern Atlantic: Svalbard to west coasts of Scotland and Ireland, deeper parts of North Sea and across the Wyville Thomson ridge to Denmark Strait. Western Atlantic: Davis Strait to George's Bank in Canada. Arctic Ocean: east to Finnmark, Norway, Barents Sea (Ref. 86838).
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 35388); rapporterad maxålder: 35 år (Ref. 35388)
Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 11-13; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 11 - 17. Scales with tiny spines on exposed parts. Dorsal fin begins above or nearly above tip of pectoral fin (Ref. 7251). Swim bladder elongated and silvery. Body slender to robust (Ref. 37473).
Bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Prefer depths of 182.8-255.9 m, temperature 7-10°C and mean salinity 34 ppt (Ref. 5951). Probably form schools close to the bottom. Feeds on planktonic invertebrates including euphausiids, amphipods (arrow worms, krill and Thermisto (Ref. 5951)), chaetognaths, squids and ctenophores, also small fishes. Spawns from April to July (Ref. 4773). Growth is slow. Eggs and young are pelagic at depths of 400-500m. Used fresh or in fish meal production (Ref. 35388).
Cohen, D.M., 1984. Argentinidae (including Microstomatidae). p. 386-391. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Volume 1. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 4773)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.4 - 10.2, mean 5.5 °C (based on 587 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00204 - 0.00647), b=3.19 (3.03 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.1 (5.5 - 7.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (K=0.12-0.14; tm=5-9).
Prior r = 0.34, 95% CL = 0.23 - 0.62, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21 [9, 53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.494 [0.266, 1.030] mg/100g ; Protein = 15 [13, 17] % ; Omega3 = 0.389 [0.168, 0.926] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.3 [7.7, 41.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.2 [3.0, 40.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.462 [0.295, 0.737] mg/100g (wet weight);