Coregonus autumnalis (Pallas, 1776)

Arctic cisco
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Coregonus autumnalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus autumnalis (Arctic cisco)
Coregonus autumnalis
Male picture by Harrod, C.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Pallas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243).   極; 84°N - 49°N, 8°W - 95°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: All drainages (except Ob and Baikal) of Arctic Ocean in Eurasia from Mezen eastward. North America: Cape Barrow to Coronation Bay. Introduced in many localities of former USSR, but not established (Ref. 59043).
歐洲: 西伯利亞的英國,巴倫支海與海岸與河。 也在愛爾蘭, 在那裡它是直到最近 Coregonus lavaretus 互相混淆的與 Coregonus albula.(參考文獻 6258) 北方美國: 在加拿大西北地區中的 Murchison 河在阿拉斯加州指出搬運架; 也在西北地區 (參考文獻 5273) 與 Liard 河,卑詩省下游中的麥肯茲河.(參考文獻 10882) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 47.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大年齡: 12 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-12; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 14; 脊椎骨: 64 - 67. Distinguished by the pale or colorless pelvic fins, a terminal mouth and the presence of 41 to 48 gill rakers on the 1st gill arch (Ref. 27547). Dorsal fairly high and slightly falcate; pelvic with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Brown to dark greenish above fading to silvery on sides and belly; fins pale (Ref. 27547).
區別的特徵為灰白或者無色的腹鰭了, 一口部端位且那在第一鰓弓上有 41 到 48個鰓耙.(參考文獻 27547) 背鰭非常高與些微鐮刀狀; 腹鰭有腋窩的突起。 (參考文獻 27547) 褪成的褐色到深色的呈綠色的上方銀色的在側邊與腹面上; 鰭灰白的.(參考文獻 27547)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in brackish waters (20-22 ppt) of coastal lagoons and mouths of rivers and bays (Ref. 4779). Mostly in larger lowland rivers (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on small crustaceans, insects, small fishes (Ref. 28219, 28857), worms and clams (Ref. 58426). At sea, feeds on larger crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 59043). No feeding occurs during the upstream migration (Ref. 4779). Lives 10 -12 years, rarely up to 20 (Ref. 59043). Enters rivers in shoals to spawn (Ref. 4779). Spends 6-8 years at sea before maturing and returning to rivers in June - July, to spawn in September - October of same year. A second run in autumn; those fishes remain a year in rivers before spawning. Moves far upstream, sometimes our to 1500 km. Spawns in shallow tributaries with some current in well oxygenated water over gravel bottom. Individual females do not spawn every year; spawns only 2-3 times during entire life. After spawning adults return directly to sea. Embryonic development lasts up to 7 months. Alevins migrate downstream in May - June (Ref. 59043). Collected by fyke nets (Ref. 4526). An important commercial species, but catches and abundance markedly reduced in last years (Ref. 59043).

出現於岸邊潟湖與河口的半鹹淡水域 (20-22個 ppt) 與海灣。 (參考文獻 4779) 沿海-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 在淺灘中進入河產卵.(參考文獻 4779) 吃小型甲殼動物,昆蟲,小魚 (參考文獻 28219,28857) ,蠕蟲與蛤。 (參考文獻 58426) 沒有進食發生於溯溪迴游。 (參考文獻 4779) 由待袋網收集.。 (參考文獻 4526)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Mature adults migrate upstream in the summer and may cover as much as 1,000 km (Ref. 28219) to spawn over gravel in fairly swift water. After spawning, adults return downstream. Young probably hatch in the spring and descend rivers into estuaries (Ref. 27547). Coregonus autumnalis do not breed yearly (Ref. 28219, 28220).歐洲: 西伯利亞的英國,巴倫支海與海岸與河。 也在愛爾蘭, 在那裡它是直到最近 Coregonus lavaretus 互相混淆的與 Coregonus albula.(參考文獻 6258) 北方美國: 在加拿大西北地區中的 Murchison 河在阿拉斯加州指出搬運架; 也在西北地區 (參考文獻 5273) 與 Liard 河,卑詩省下游中的麥肯茲河.(參考文獻 10882) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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漁業: 商業性
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -1.7 - 3.4, mean -0.4 (based on 988 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00385 - 0.00568), b=3.21 (3.17 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=6; Fec=2,000).
Prior r = 0.40, 95% CL = 0.26 - 0.60, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.