Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Thresher
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Alopias vulpinus
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Alopiidae (Thresher sharks)
Etymology: Alopias: Greek, alopex = fox (Ref. 45335);  vulpinus: Named comes from the Latin 'vulpes' meaning fox (Ref. 6885).  More on author: Bonnaterre.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 650 m (Ref. 106604), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 55168).   Subtropical; 74°N - 58°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54279)

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 6871, 58085). Population considered reduced (R) in the US Atlantic waters; lower risk/conservation dependent (LR/CD) in US Pacific waters; data deficient (DD) in the rest of Atlantic and rest of Pacific (Ref. 12451). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 303.0, range 226 - 400 cm
Max length : 573 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 106604); 549.0 cm TL (female); common length : 450 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 5217); 最大公表体重: 348.0 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大記録サイズ: 25 年 (Ref. 81241)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 0; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 0. A large thresher with relatively small eyes, curved, narrow-tipped pectoral fins, a narrow-tipped caudal fin, and a conspicuous white patch over the pectoral fin bases (Ref. 5578). Second dorsal origin well behind the rear tip of the pelvic fin (Ref. 559). Upper lobe of caudal fin very long and strap-like, about as long as or longer than length of rest of shark; lower lobe short but well developed (Ref. 13570). Brown, grey, blue-grey, or blackish on back and underside of snout, lighter on sides and abruptly white below; a white area extends from the abdomen over the pectoral-fin bases; pectoral-, pelvic-, and dorsal fins blackish, white dots sometimes present on pectoral-, pelvic-, and caudal- fin tips (Ref. 13570).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Coastal over continental and insular shelves and epipelagic far from land (Ref. 30573, 43278, 58302). Oceanic although most abundant near land, pelagic at 1-366 m (Ref. 58302). Young often close inshore and in shallow bays (Ref. 5578). Feeds on schooling fishes (including mackerels, bluefishes, clupeids, needlefishes, lancetfishes and lanternfishes), squid, octopi, pelagic crustaceans, and rarely seabirds (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 43278, 50449). Uses its long caudal fin to bunch up and stun prey (Ref. 2850). Spatial and depth segregation by sex in northwestern Indian Ocean populations (Ref. 247). A few attacks on boats are doubtfully attributed to this species, but it is otherwise apparently harmless to humans, though the size of adults of this species command respect (Ref. 247). May cause damage to fishing gear (Ref. 6885). Valued for its meat, liver, hide, and fins; utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on the ova produced by the mother after the yolk sac is absorbed (oophagy) (Ref. 50449), 2 to 4 young in a litter (usually 2) (Ref. 247). Size at birth 114-150 cm (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 協力者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 120744)

  攻撃されやすい (VU) (A2bd+3bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)


人間に対する脅威

  Harmless (Ref. 247)





Human uses

水産業: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO(水産業: 代謝, 種の外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.6 - 28.2, mean 23.3 (based on 8352 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00351 - 0.01970), b=2.86 (2.66 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低い, 4.5年~14年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.1; tm=5-7; tmax=19; Fec=2-4).
Prior r = 0.16, 95% CL = 0.09 - 0.34, Based on 2 stock assessments.
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   High.