Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Thresher
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Alopias vulpinus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Alopiidae (Thresher sharks)
Etymology: Alopias: Greek, alopex = fox (Ref. 45335);  vulpinus: Named comes from the Latin 'vulpes' meaning fox (Ref. 6885).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 0 - 650 m (Ref. 106604), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 55168).   Subtropical; 74°N - 58°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54279)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 6871, 58085). Population considered reduced (R) in the US Atlantic waters; lower risk/conservation dependent (LR/CD) in US Pacific waters; data deficient (DD) in the rest of Atlantic and rest of Pacific (Ref. 12451). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 303.0, range 226 - 400 cm
Max length : 573 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 106604); 549.0 cm TL (female); common length : 450 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5217); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 348.0 kg (Ref. 40637); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 25 jaren (Ref. 81241)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 0; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 0. A large thresher with relatively small eyes, curved, narrow-tipped pectoral fins, a narrow-tipped caudal fin, and a conspicuous white patch over the pectoral fin bases (Ref. 5578). Second dorsal origin well behind the rear tip of the pelvic fin (Ref. 559). Upper lobe of caudal fin very long and strap-like, about as long as or longer than length of rest of shark; lower lobe short but well developed (Ref. 13570). Brown, grey, blue-grey, or blackish on back and underside of snout, lighter on sides and abruptly white below; a white area extends from the abdomen over the pectoral-fin bases; pectoral-, pelvic-, and dorsal fins blackish, white dots sometimes present on pectoral-, pelvic-, and caudal- fin tips (Ref. 13570).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Coastal over continental and insular shelves and epipelagic far from land (Ref. 30573, 43278, 58302). Oceanic although most abundant near land, pelagic at 1-366 m (Ref. 58302). Young often close inshore and in shallow bays (Ref. 5578). Feeds on schooling fishes (including mackerels, bluefishes, clupeids, needlefishes, lancetfishes and lanternfishes), squid, octopi, pelagic crustaceans, and rarely seabirds (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 43278, 50449). Uses its long caudal fin to bunch up and stun prey (Ref. 2850). Spatial and depth segregation by sex in northwestern Indian Ocean populations (Ref. 247). A few attacks on boats are doubtfully attributed to this species, but it is otherwise apparently harmless to humans, though the size of adults of this species command respect (Ref. 247). May cause damage to fishing gear (Ref. 6885). Valued for its meat, liver, hide, and fins; utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on the ova produced by the mother after the yolk sac is absorbed (oophagy) (Ref. 50449), 2 to 4 young in a litter (usually 2) (Ref. 247). Size at birth 114-150 cm (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Medewerkers

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Kwetsbaar, zie IUCN Rode Lijst (VU) (A2bd+3bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)


Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless (Ref. 247)





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.6 - 28.2, mean 23.3 (based on 8352 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00358 - 0.01934), b=2.86 (2.66 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (K=0.1; tm=5-7; tmax=19; Fec=2-4).
Prior r = 0.05, 95% CL = 0.01 - 0.18, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   High.