分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性. Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E
Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).
サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 556)
Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
協力者画像Stamps, Coins Misc.音シガテラ（食中毒の名前）速度泳ぐ 型式カマOtoliths脳視覚
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00590 - 0.01775), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 12.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (tm=4).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .