Ballerus sapa (Pallas, 1814)

White-eye bream
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Image of Ballerus sapa (White-eye bream)
Ballerus sapa
Female picture by Otel, V.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
  More on author: Pallas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; zoetwater; brakwater benthopelagisch.   Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E

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Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 556)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00584 - 0.01711), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (tm=4).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.