Bathyraja smirnovi (Soldatov & Pavlenko, 1915)

Golden skate
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Bathyraja smirnovi   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Bathyraja smirnovi
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae (Skates)
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335);  smirnovi: Named for 'Mr. Smirnov', Inspector of Fishes, who collected fishes from the Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 89865).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 深度上下限 100 - 1000 m.   溫帶; - 36°N (Ref. 89865)

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North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Kuril Islands, and the Sea of Japan.
北太平洋: 鄂霍次克海與白令海到日本北部。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 102 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 89865)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

This species is distinguished from all other members of Arctoraja by the absence of a complete row of middorsal thorns and with the ridge of clasper poorly developed (vs. strongly developed). It is further distinguished from B. parmifera which occasionally lacks middorsal thorns by having a narrow interdorsal space 0.1-1.4% TL (vs. 1.0-3.9% TL), distal projection of the ventral marginal projects directly distally (vs. distolaterally), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped), dorsal and ventral marginals extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3 (vs. extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2); from B. panthera by its narrower interdorsal length (vs. 1.4-3.1% TL), anterior portion of body shorter and narrower (vs. longer and wider), tail shorter (vs. longer), single cranial fontanelle (vs. separate anterior and posterior fontanelles), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped), dorsal and ventral marginals extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3 (vs. extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2); from B. simoterus by having fewer vertebrae 118-127 (vs. 131), fewer precaudal vertebrae 31-38 (vs. 41), larger mouth size 8.3-11.6% TL (vs. 8.1-9.1% TL), neurocranium with 1 fontanelle (vs. 2), internal carotid foramina close together in a single pit (vs. widely separated), scapulocoracoid with 5 foramina, anterior- and posteriormost larger than 3 intermediates (vs. 3 foramina, more posterior each slightly smaller), and pelvic girdle with 2 obturator foramina close together (vs. widely spaced) (Ref. 89865).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 12.4-15.0 cm long and 8.7-9.0 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07). Reported to feed primarily on amphipods, decapods, fishes, euphausids, and squid on Yamato Bank in the Sea of Japan. Maximum length reported 116 cm TL (Ref, 89865).

卵生的。 明顯的成對出現。 幼魚可能傾向跟隨大的個體, 例如他們的母親.(參考文獻 205) 卵為長方形鞘囊具有僵硬的觸角沈積在沙灘或泥灘的角落.(參考文獻 205) 卵鞘是 12.4-15.0 公分長與 8.7-9.0 公分寬的.(參考文獻 41249,41253) 被 H. Ishihara 給的深度範圍 (pers.comm。 07/07).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).北太平洋: 鄂霍次克海與白令海到日本北部。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 July 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.6 - 3.8, mean 1.6 (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00244 - 0.00981), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .