Chitala chitala (Hamilton, 1822)

Clown knifefish
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Chitala chitala
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (strålfeniga fiskar) > Osteoglossiformes (Bony tongues) > Notopteridae (Featherbacks or knifefishes)
Etymology: Chitala: Bangladesh local name;  chitala: From rivers of Bengal & Behar.  More on author: Hamilton.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; sötvatten bottenlevande; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19.   Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Asia: Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mahanadi river basins in India. No valid records from Irrawaddy, Salween or other river basins of Myanmar. Reports of Chitala chitala from Thailand and Indo-China were based on Chitala ornata and those from Malaysia and Indonesia on Chitala lopis.

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 75.5  range ? - 91 cm
Max length : 122 cm SL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 4832); common length : 75.0 cm SL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 2686)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 9; Taggstrålar i analfenan 0; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 117 - 127. The only species in which subadults and adults have a series of transverse gold or silver bars on the dorsum, but this color feature is not always present (Ref. 7431). Differs from C. ornata in never having ocellated spots and from C. blanci and C. lopis in never having a black spot on the pectoral fin base (Ref. 7431).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit freshwater rivers, lakes, beels, nullahs in the plains (Ref. 41236), reservoirs, canals and ponds (Ref. 1479). Feed on aquatic insects, mollusks, shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 1479). Females lay eggs usually on stake or stump of wood, males fan them with tail, keep them aerated and silt-free, guard them against small catfish and other predators; complete give-away to fishermen; females not observed at egg posts; moderately important food fish (Ref. 2686). Spawn once a year during May to August (Ref. 6459).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

The male tends the clutch (Ref. 2060).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator | Medarbetare

Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Near Threatened (NT) ; Date assessed: 28 May 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell; Vattenbruk: kommersiell; sportfisk: ja; Akvarium: Kommersiell
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5166   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.59 se; Based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mellan, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 1,4-4,4 år (tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.