Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792)

Giant manta
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Mobula birostris
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Mobulinae
  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海 関連する礁; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 120 m (Ref. 58302).   Subtropical; 42°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55255)

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate: in the Northern Hemisphere, as far north as southern California and Rhode Island on the United States west and east coasts, Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Japan, the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the Azores Islands; in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as Peru, Uruguay, South Africa and New Zealand. In some locations, including Mozambique, it is sympatric with Manta alfredi.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 400.0, range 380 - 460 cm
Max length : 910 cm WD オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 58048); common length : 450 cm WD オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3176); 最大公表体重: 3.0 t (Ref. 5377); 最大記録サイズ: 20 年 (Ref. 31742)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

A giant ray having an extremely broad head with long head fins, and a terminal mouth; upper surface of disc covered with denticles, and tail usually without a spine (Ref. 5578). Blackish above, sometimes with white shoulder patches; white below, with grey edging on disc (Ref. 5578). Tail whiplike but short (Ref. 7251).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water (Ref. 12951). Reported along productive coastlines with regular upwelling, oceanic island groups and offshore pinnacles and seamounts (Ref. 82755). Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths (Ref. 9911). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs singly or in loose aggregations (Ref. 12951). Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small and moderate-sized fishes as well (Ref. 9911). Leaps out the water mainly in spring and autumn, possibly as part of mating behavior (Ref. 31742). Easily approached (Ref. 9911). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6902). Commonly caught by tuna gillnet and harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (very high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Liver yields oil and skin used as abrasive (Ref. 6902). World's largest ray (Ref. 37816).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Bears up to 2 young (Ref. 5578); born at 122-127 cm WD (Ref.58048). A female of 550 cm width and weighing 1050 kg was collected in the Galapagos in June and was carrying a well-developed embryo of 12.7 kg (Ref. 28023). Size at partuition might be from 1.1 to 1.3 m and from 9.1 to 1.14 kg (Ref. 31742). Yano et al (1999) (Ref. 35892) describe the mating behavior of manta rays based on observations off Ogasawara Islands, Japan, in the following sequence: 1) 'chasing', the male rapidly follows behind the tail of the female and attacks her several times; 2) 'nipping', the male nips the tip of the pectoral fin of the female and then moves to the ventral surface of the female; 3) 'copulating', the male inserts a clasper into the cloacaof the female and copulates abdomen-to-abdomen, up to 123 seconds; 4) 'post-copulating'; 5) 'separating'. (Ref. 49562).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : McEachran, John | 協力者

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 119314)

  攻撃されやすい (VU) (A2abd+3bd+4abd); Date assessed: 01 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)


人間に対する脅威

  Harmless (Ref. 9911)





Human uses

水産業: 少数商業の
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

より多くの情報

共通名の
類義語
代謝
捕食動物
生態毒性
繁殖
成熟
放精
卵の集合体
生産力

卵の開発
Age/Size
成長
体長-重さ
Length-length
体長組成
形態計測学
形態学
幼生
幼生の動力
補充
豊度
参考文献
水産養殖
水産養殖の紹介
緊張
遺伝子の
対立遺伝子頻度
遺伝
病気
行列
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シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
速度
泳ぐ 型式
カマ
Otoliths

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.8 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 3220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常に低い, 14年以上の倍増期間の最小個体群 (tm=6; tmax>20; Fec=1).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.