Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792)

Giant manta
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Mobula birostris
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) 鰩目 (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) 燕魟科 (Eagle and manta rays) > Mobulinae
  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 120 m (Ref. 58302).   亞熱帶的; 42°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55255)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate: in the Northern Hemisphere, as far north as southern California and Rhode Island on the United States west and east coasts, Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Japan, the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the Azores Islands; in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as Peru, Uruguay, South Africa and New Zealand. In some locations, including Mozambique, it is sympatric with Manta alfredi.
Circumtropical。 西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國南卡羅萊那州與巴西到烏拉圭 (參考文獻 58839), 偶然更北方.(參考文獻 26938) 西北大西洋: 加拿大.(參考文獻 5951)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 400.0, range 380 - 460 cm
Max length : 910 cm WD 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 58048); common length : 450 cm WD 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3176); 最大體重: 3.0 t (Ref. 5377); 最大年齡: 20 年 (Ref. 31742)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

A giant ray having an extremely broad head with long head fins, and a terminal mouth; upper surface of disc covered with denticles, and tail usually without a spine (Ref. 5578). Blackish above, sometimes with white shoulder patches; white below, with grey edging on disc (Ref. 5578). Tail whiplike but short (Ref. 7251).
一個大型的魟魚有一個非常寬大頭部有長的頭鰭 , 與一個端位口; 體盤上表面覆蓋著細齒了,而且尾部通常沒有一根棘。 (參考文獻 5578) 背面黑色的, 有時具有白色的肩區塊; 腹面白色的, 在體盤上有灰色的邊.(參考文獻 5578) 尾部鞭狀的但是短.(參考文獻 7251)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water (Ref. 12951). Reported along productive coastlines with regular upwelling, oceanic island groups and offshore pinnacles and seamounts (Ref. 82755). Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths (Ref. 9911). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs singly or in loose aggregations (Ref. 12951). Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small and moderate-sized fishes as well (Ref. 9911). Leaps out the water mainly in spring and autumn, possibly as part of mating behavior (Ref. 31742). Easily approached (Ref. 9911). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6902). Commonly caught by tuna gillnet and harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (very high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Liver yields oil and skin used as abrasive (Ref. 6902). World's largest ray (Ref. 37816).

主要在近岸水域, 在珊瑚礁與岩礁的附近; 有時發現在深水域上面.。 (參考文獻 12951) 深入泥濘的淺水海灣與潮間帶而且出現河口外。 (參考文獻 9911) 大洋性.(參考文獻 58302) 各別地或在鬆散的魚群中生存。 (參考文獻 12951) 主要地浮游生物捕食者, 但是可能吃小的與也中等大小的魚.(參考文獻 9911) 出自水的跳躍主要在春天與秋天, 可能地為交配行為的一部份.(參考文獻 31742) 容易接近。 (參考文獻 9911) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 6902) 肝臟產生油,而且皮膚用作.研磨劑。 (參考文獻 6902) 世界最大的鰭條.(參考文獻 37816)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Bears up to 2 young (Ref. 5578); born at 122-127 cm WD (Ref.58048). A female of 550 cm width and weighing 1050 kg was collected in the Galapagos in June and was carrying a well-developed embryo of 12.7 kg (Ref. 28023). Size at partuition might be from 1.1 to 1.3 m and from 9.1 to 1.14 kg (Ref. 31742). Yano et al (1999) (Ref. 35892) describe the mating behavior of manta rays based on observations off Ogasawara Islands, Japan, in the following sequence: 1) 'chasing', the male rapidly follows behind the tail of the female and attacks her several times; 2) 'nipping', the male nips the tip of the pectoral fin of the female and then moves to the ventral surface of the female; 3) 'copulating', the male inserts a clasper into the cloacaof the female and copulates abdomen-to-abdomen, up to 123 seconds; 4) 'post-copulating'; 5) 'separating'. (Ref. 49562).Circumtropical。 西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國南卡羅萊那州與巴西到烏拉圭 (參考文獻 58839), 偶然更北方.(參考文獻 26938) 西北大西洋: 加拿大.(參考文獻 5951)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 119314)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2abd+3bd+4abd); Date assessed: 01 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)


對人類具威脅

  無害處的 (Ref. 9911)





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.8 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 3220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (tm=6; tmax>20; Fec=1).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.