Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Boops: Greek, bous = caw + Greek, ops = appearance, 1854 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 350 m (Ref. 26999), usually 0 - 100 m (Ref. 26999). Subtropical; 63°N - 16°S, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 54286)
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Angola, including the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and the Sao Tome-Principe Islands. Common from Bay of Biscay to Gibraltar (Ref. 4781). Also found in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 14.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 115876); common length : 20.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3397); peso máx. Publicado: 455.00 g (Ref. 115876)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 13 - 15; Raios dorsais moles (total): 12-16; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais moles: 14 - 16. Body slender, with 3 - 5 weak, golden longitudinal stripes and a black spot at the pectoral fin base (Ref. 35388).
Found on the shelf or coastal pelagic on various bottoms (sand, mud, rocks and seaweeds). Gregarious, ascending to the surface mainly at night. Omnivorous, feeding mainly on crustaceans, also planktophagous. Hermaphroditic, generally protogynous. Also caught in pelagic trawls (Ref. 9987). Utilized fresh and frozen; consumed pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987).
Conflicting descriptions of the reproductive style of this species have been reported, Ref. 34225 describe this species as being a gonochorist (Ref. 28504). Also Ref. 32206, 103751.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: altamente comercial; peixe desportivo: sim; isco: usually
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 27.7, mean 17.8 (based on 912 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00948 - 0.01157), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.2 (4.1 - 6.4) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 23 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.16-0.4; tm=1-2; Fec=395,000).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.89, Based on 13 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .