() > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Seale.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; non migratori; distribuzione batimetrica 2 - 30 m (Ref. 2295), usually 2 - 18 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 31°N - 32°S, 96°E - 134°W
Pacific Ocean: Indonesia and Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Australia, east to the Tuamoto Islands. Has most frequently been named Lethrinus mahsena.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 48635); common length : 32.5 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2295); Età massima riportata: 24 anni (Ref. 2290)
Spine dorsali (totale): 10; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 9; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 8.
Inhabits seagrass beds and sandy areas of lagoons and outer reef slopes. Found singly or in schools. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks, and fish. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Gonochorism is inferred for this species as sizes of males and females overlapped and male gonad morphology is typical of secondarily derived testes (Ref. 103751). Juvenile hermaphroditism is exhibited by this species (Ref. 35994).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2744 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00998 - 0.02404), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.29-0.31; tm=3.7-5; tmax=24).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .