Lethrinus harak, Thumbprint emperor : fisheries

Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775)

Thumbprint emperor
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Lethrinus harak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lethrinus harak
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の 関連する礁; 移住性ではない; 深さの範囲 0 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 32°N - 32°S, 31°E - 155°W

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Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and E ast Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northeastern Australia.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 19.5  range ? - 21.1 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 30573); 最大記録サイズ: 15 年 (Ref. 2293)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 10; 背鰭 (合計): 9; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.6-2.8 times in standard length; head length 0.9-1 times in body depth, 2.7-3.1 times in SL length, dorsal profile near eye distinctly or slightly convex; snout short and blunt, its length about 2.0-2.6 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.9-1 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile nearly straight, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 60° and 70°; interorbital space convex or almost flat; posterior nostril a narrow longitudinal slit, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close to dorsal profile, its length 3.4-4.2 times in HL; cheek not very high, its height 2.3-3.1 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws of adults molars or rounded; outer surface of maxilla smooth or with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 the 4th or 5th dorsal-fin spine the longest, its length 2.5-3.1 times in body depth; A III,8 with the first soft ray usually the longest, its length almost equal to or longer or shorter than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1.2-1.6 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body without dense melanophores; cheek without scales; 46-47 lateral-line scales usually; usually 5 ½ (sometimes 4 ½) scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 14-16 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; 13-14 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 4-8 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral-fin base densely covered with scales; posterior angle of operculum fully scaly. Colour of body olive or grey above, shading to silvery white below; a large elliptical black spot, often broadly edged in yellow, on side directly below lateral line and centered at a vertical near the posterior tip of pectoral fins; sometimes light blue dots bordering lower rim of eye and around nostrils; pectoral, pelvic, dorsal, and anal fins white to pinkish; caudal fin orange or reddish; vertical fins sometimes lightly mottled or striped (Ref. 114226).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Found solitary or in small schools over shallow sandy, coral rubble, mangroves, lagoons, channel and seagrass areas inshore and adjacent to coral reefs. Feeds on polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms and small fish. Reported to spawn throughout the year during the first five days of the lunar month in large aggregations in Palau. Caught mostly by shore seine, gill nets, traps, and handline. Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 171, 68703); flesh spoils rapidly (Ref. 4369).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 商業
FAO - 水産業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.7 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3040 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01196 - 0.01746), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.45-0.49; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.58, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.87, Based on 1 stock assessment.
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 62.1 [33.8, 104.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.25 [0.73, 2.19] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [16.9, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.264 [0.138, 0.511] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.9 [20.3, 103.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.1 [4.2, 113.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.84 [1.87, 4.11] mg/100g (wet weight);