Lethrinus harak, Thumbprint emperor : fisheries

Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775)

Thumbprint emperor
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Lethrinus harak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lethrinus harak (Thumbprint emperor)
Lethrinus harak
Picture by Field, R.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, گونه ها) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; لب شور وابسته به آب سنگ; غير مهاجر; تغييرات عمق 0 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 32°N - 32°S, 31°E - 155°W

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and E ast Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northeastern Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 19.5  range ? - 21.1 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 30573); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 15 سال ها (Ref. 2293)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 10; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 9; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.6-2.8 times in standard length; head length 0.9-1 times in body depth, 2.7-3.1 times in SL length, dorsal profile near eye distinctly or slightly convex; snout short and blunt, its length about 2.0-2.6 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.9-1 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile nearly straight, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 60° and 70°; interorbital space convex or almost flat; posterior nostril a narrow longitudinal slit, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close to dorsal profile, its length 3.4-4.2 times in HL; cheek not very high, its height 2.3-3.1 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws of adults molars or rounded; outer surface of maxilla smooth or with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 the 4th or 5th dorsal-fin spine the longest, its length 2.5-3.1 times in body depth; A III,8 with the first soft ray usually the longest, its length almost equal to or longer or shorter than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1.2-1.6 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body without dense melanophores; cheek without scales; 46-47 lateral-line scales usually; usually 5 ½ (sometimes 4 ½) scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 14-16 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; 13-14 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 4-8 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral-fin base densely covered with scales; posterior angle of operculum fully scaly. Colour of body olive or grey above, shading to silvery white below; a large elliptical black spot, often broadly edged in yellow, on side directly below lateral line and centered at a vertical near the posterior tip of pectoral fins; sometimes light blue dots bordering lower rim of eye and around nostrils; pectoral, pelvic, dorsal, and anal fins white to pinkish; caudal fin orange or reddish; vertical fins sometimes lightly mottled or striped (Ref. 114226).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Found solitary or in small schools over shallow sandy, coral rubble, mangroves, lagoons, channel and seagrass areas inshore and adjacent to coral reefs. Feeds on polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms and small fish. Reported to spawn throughout the year during the first five days of the lunar month in large aggregations in Palau. Caught mostly by shore seine, gill nets, traps, and handline. Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 171, 68703); flesh spoils rapidly (Ref. 4369).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  حداقل نگرانی (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Harmless





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: تجاري
FAO - ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

اطلاعات بيشتر

اسامي عام
مترادف
سوخت و ساز
شکارچیان
سم شناسي بوم زيستي
تولید مثل
بلوغ
تخم ریزی
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
تخم ها
نمو تخم
Age/Size
رشد
طول - وزن
طول - طول
نوسانات طولی
ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري
ريخت شناسي
توزاد ( لارو)
پويايي لاروي
بازسازی
فراواني
BRUVS
مراجع
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
نژادها
ژنتيك
تواتر آلل ها
وارث
بيماري ها
فرآوری
Nutrients
Mass conversion
همكاران
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
صداها
سيگواترا
سرعت
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي
Otoliths
مغزها
بینایی

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | فيش واچر را ببينيد | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: جنس, گونه ها | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: ژنوم, نوکلئوتيد | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | پايگاه هاي داده ها | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: برو, جستجو | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.7 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3040 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01196 - 0.01746), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.45-0.49; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.58, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.87, Based on 1 stock assessment.
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 62.1 [33.8, 104.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.25 [0.73, 2.19] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [16.9, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.264 [0.138, 0.511] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.9 [20.3, 103.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.1 [4.2, 113.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.84 [1.87, 4.11] mg/100g (wet weight);