分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼)
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 1 - 20 m (Ref. 52034). 温带; 63°N - 20°N, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles and the Netherlands to Morocco, Canary Islands (Ref. 4509), Madeira, and the Azores, including the Mediterranean (Ref. 89253). Although morphologically smaller than specimens from other areas, recent genetic data confirms that specimens from the Black Sea are in fact long-snouted seahorses (Ref. 89255). International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies. Listed in Appendix II (Mediterranean, as Hippocampus ramulosus) of the Bern Convention (2002) and in Appendix II (as Hippocampus spp.) at CITES (2009).
东大西洋: 不列颠群岛到摩洛哥，加纳利群岛 (参考文献 4509) ，马得拉群岛 , 与亚速群岛包括地中海。 黑海标本可能是一个不同的种。 国际间的买卖被监视过一个授权系统 ( CITES2, 自从 5.15.04 以后) ，而且一个 10 公分的最小大小应用。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 12.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.5 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 79902); 18.0 cm OT (female)
型态特徵 | 形态测量图
背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 17-20. Description (based on 46 specimens): Adult height: 8.5-18.0cm. Rings: 11 + 37-39 (35-40). Snout length: 2.3-2.8 in head length. Dorsal fin rays: 19-20 (17-20) covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16-18. Coronet: small but distinct, with 5 rounded knobs or blunt points; horizontal plate in front of coronet as high as coronet itself, with a more or less prominent spine at its front edge; coronet not joined smoothly to neck. Spines: medium to well-developed with blunt tips. Other distinctive characters: prominent rounded eye spines; often with a mane of thick skin fronds on neck and head. Color pattern: from dark green to brown (Refs. 52034, 89230); prominent white spots on body (often with a dark ring around them) which tend to coalesce into horizontal wavy lines103; may be variously mottled or with pale ‘saddles’ across dorsolateral surface.
描述:(以 46件標本為依據) 成魚的高度: 8.5-18.0 公分。 環: 11+37-39.(35-40) 吻的長度: 2.3-2.8 分之一頭長。 背鰭鰭條: 19-20(17-20)個覆蓋 2+1個環。 胸鰭鰭條: 16-18. 冠: 小的但是明顯的,5 圓形的癤瘤或鈍的點; 在冠之前的水平碟與冠本身一樣高, 在它的前緣具有一個約略突出的棘; 冠不平滑地結合擁抱。 棘: 中等的對發展良好的和鈍的頂端。
其他的顯著特性: 突出的圓形眼棘; 時常在脖子與頭部上具有一個厚皮膚葉的鬃毛。
彩色斑紋: 可變的褐色; 在傾向的身體 (在他們周圍時常具有一個深色的環) 上的突出的白色斑點合併成水平的波浪狀的第 103 行; 可能是各種不同有斑點或者有灰白的橫過背外側的表面的 '鞍狀斑'。
Commonly referred to as Hippocampus ramulosus. Occurs mostly in shallow inshore waters including littoral lagoons (Ref. 9937) among algae and eel grass (Zostera or Posidonia), or among rocks and in gravel bottoms (Ref. 52034). Juveniles were observed to recruit to vegetated habitats at 8.8- 10.4 cm length (Ref. 79902). Adults (from 12.5 cm length) appear to maintain very restricted home ranges (19.9 ± 12.4 m2) over multiple years making limited daily movements. (Ref. 79902). May move to deeper waters during winter (Ref. 53712). Like other seahorse species, adult dispersals over large distances is probably caused by strong wave action and currents during storms or when it anchors itself to floating debris (Ref. 52034). Is thought to live for 4-7 years (Ref. 79902). Because of its early age at maturity, rapid growth rate, short generation time and multiple breeding cycles during each spawning season, resilience is thought to be high (Ref. 88171). However, in tropical areas where seagrass beds are regularly exploited for other species of seahorses for the aquarium trade, traditional medicine, etc., populations have been quickly eradicated (Ref. 89253). Can be maintained in an aquarium environment if trained to feed on dead animals (Ref. 88171). Length type OT refers to height (= TL - head length), Ref. 30915.
通常被归属于 海马 ramulosus 。 大部份在藻类与鳗草 ( Zostera 或 Posidonia) 之中的沿岸浅水区水域以及海滨的舄湖中生存。 (参考文献 9937) 产卵从四月到十月。 卵胎生的.(参考文献 205) 雄鱼带卵在一个孵卵袋是在尾部下面发现.(参考文献 205) 长度类型 OT 参考依据为高度 (= TL- 头长), 参考文献 30915.
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Ovoviviparous. During the mating season, mature males and females have been observed to change hue, i.e., become brighter, when courting (Refs. 52034, 89259). Female deposits her eggs on the brood pouch of the male which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Gestation usually lasts 21 days (Ref. 89322) and brood sizes up to 581 have been reported (Refs. 53712, 79902, 89322). Young are expelled from the pouch measuring 1.5 cm after 3 weeks of incubation. Size at birth ranges from 0.6-1.4 cm length (Ref. 79902). Newly hatched young are planktonic for at least 8 weeks (Ref. 53712). 东大西洋: 不列颠群岛到摩洛哥，加纳利群岛 (参考文献 4509) ，马得拉群岛 , 与亚速群岛包括地中海。 黑海标本可能是一个不同的种。 国际间的买卖被监视过一个授权系统 ( CITES2, 自从 5.15.04 以后) ，而且一个 10 公分的最小大小应用。
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
渔业: 低经济; 水族馆: 商业性
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.3 - 21, mean 18.6 (based on 619 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00188 - 0.00556), b=2.93 (2.77 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec=581).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .