Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Ở đại duơng, biển (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 400 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 8°C - 30°C (Ref. 56557); 49°N - 2°N, 105°E - 155°E (Ref. 54432)
Western Pacific: southern Sakhalin Islands, Sea of Japan and Pacific coasts of Japan, and south to almost Canton/Taiwan; rare records (seems to represent stray fishes) off the coasts of Luzon and Western Mindanao, Philippines and from Manado and Ujung Pandang, Sulawesi, Indonesia (Ref. 189).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - 11 cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 56527); common length : 14.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 56527); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 45.00 g (Ref. 56527); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 4 các năm (Ref. 56527)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 0; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 12-14; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 13 - 18. Differs very little from the European anchovy (see E. encrasicolus) and can be identified from that description. Of other anchovies found in the southern part of its distribution, only species of Encrasicholina and Stolephorus are of similar appearance, but all have small spine-like pre-pelvic scutes (usually 2 to 7 scutes). Thryssa have compressed bodies and a keel of scutes along belly.
Occurs in large schools near the surface, mainly in coastal waters but as far out as over 1,000 km from the shore. Tends to move more northward and inshore in spring and summer. Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Feeds on copepods, but also on other small crustaceans, molluscan larvae, fish eggs and larvae and diatoms. Marketed fresh and salted, processed into fishmeal and oil (Ref. 12484).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; mồi: usually
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.1 - 23.3, mean 18.4 (based on 139 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00278 - 0.00786), b=3.12 (2.97 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.1 (0.7 - 1.3) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Chiêù cao, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là dưới 15 tháng (K=1.05; tm=1-2; tmax=3).
Prior r = 1.18, 95% CL = 0.78 - 1.76, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .